Chapter04REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLN

Chapter04REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLN - Chapter 4: Reactions...

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CHM 150: McMurry-Fay Chapter 4 Notes page 1 of 19 Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution In Chapter Exercises: 4.1 – 4.8; End-of-Chapter Problems : 4.24, 4.25, 4.30, 4.31, 4.35, 4.36, 4.38, 4.40, 4.42, 4.44, 4.50, 4.60, 4.62, 4.64, 4.66 4.1 SOME WAYS THAT CHEMICAL REACTIONS OCCUR aqueous solution: a solution where water is the dissolving medium (the solvent ) For example, when table salt (NaCl) is dissolved in water, it results in an solution aqueous of sodium chloride, NaCl (aq) solute : component present in smaller amount solvent : component present in greater amount The formation of a solution As a solute crystal is dropped into a solution, the solvent molecules begin to attack and pull apart the solute molecules solvent molecules surround the solute molecules, forming a solvent cage the ions are now hydrated (surrounded by polar water molecules) solute is now dissolved in the solvent and cannot be seen because the ions are far apart, like the particles in a gas Evidence for Chemical Reactions 1. A gas is produced—indicated by bubbles 2. A precipitate (ppt) is formed when 2 solutions are combined 3. Heat energy change is noted exothermic reaction: releases heat (reaction vessel feels hot) endothermic reaction: absorbs heat (reaction vessel feels cold) Types of Chemical Reactions Precipitation Reactions (also called double-replacement reactions) Acid-Base Neutralization Reaction Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions Further classified as combination, decomposition, combustion, and single-replacement reactions
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page 2 of 19 4.4 PRECIPITATION REACTIONS and SOLUBILITY RULES Solubility Rules: Indicate if an ionic compound is soluble/insoluble in water. Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds in Water Soluble if the ionic compound contains: 1. Li + , Na + , K + , NH 4 + ( ALWAYS! ) 2. Nitrate ion (NO 3 ) 3. Acetate ion (C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 4. Halide ions (X ): chloride (Cl ), bromide (Br ), or iodide ion (I ), but AgX, PbX 2 , and Hg 2 X 2 are insoluble 5. Sulfate ion (SO 4 2- ), but CaSO 4 , SrSO 4 , BaSO 4 , Ag 2 SO 4 , HgSO 4 , and PbSO 4 are insoluble . Insoluble if the ionic compound contains: 6. Carbonate ion (CO 3 2- ), but Li + , Na + , K + , NH 4 + 7. Chromate ion (CrO 4 2- ), but Li + , Na + , K + , NH 4 + 8. Phosphate ion (PO 4 3- ), but Li + , Na + , K + , NH 4 + 9. Sulfide ion (S 2– ), but compounds with Li + , Na + , K + , NH 4 + , and CaS, SrS, and BaS are soluble . 10. Hydroxide ion (OH ), but compounds with Li + , Na + , K + , NH 4 + , Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH)2, and Ba(OH) 2 are soluble . soluble = compound dissolves in water physical state is shown as aqueous, (aq) insoluble = compound does not dissolve in water but remains as a solid physical state is shown as solid, (s) Ex. 1 Use the Solubility Rules to predict whether the following ionic compounds are soluble or insoluble. Indicate the physical state as (aq) for soluble compounds and (s) for insoluble compounds. a
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Chapter04REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLN - Chapter 4: Reactions...

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