CHAPTER 12 notes - 1 Organic Chemistry Welcome to CHEMISTRY...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/27/2009 1 Organic Chemistry Welcome to CHEMISTRY 1B!! Chemical Kinetics Nuclear Chemistry Electrochemistry Chemical Equilibrium Transition Metal Chemistry Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Reactions: 1. What Happens? Three Fundamental Questions CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O 2. How fast does it happen? 3. To What Extent Does it Happen? Chemical Kinetics Reaction Rate may be expressed as: Chemical Kinetics : Involves Reaction rates and the sequence of steps by which reactions occur. ● The INCREASE in the concentration of a PRODUCT per unit time. ● The DECREASE in the concentration of a REACTANT per unit time. Factors that Affect the Rate of Reactions ● Concentrations ● The Physical State of Reactants and Products ● Temperature ● Catalysts 1/27/2009 2 2N 2 O 5 ( g ) 4NO 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) Reaction Rates Table 12.1: Concentration as a function of Time at 55 C Time(s) N 2 O 5 NO 2 O 2 Concentration (M) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0.0200 0.0169 0.0142 0.0120 0.0101 0.0086 0.0072 0.0061 0.0063 0.0115 0.0160 0.0197 0.0229 0.0256 0.0278 0.0016 0.0029 0.0040 0.0049 0.0057 0.0064 0.0070 Decrease Increase Concentration (M) Time(seconds) 2N 2 O 5 ( g ) 4NO 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) Reaction Rates 0.01 0.02 0.03 200 400 600 800 NO 2 O 2 0.01 0.02 0.03 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Concentration (M) Time(seconds) 2N 2 O 5 ( g ) 4NO 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) NO 2 O 2 N 2 O 5 D T = 100 s D [NO 2 ] = 0.0036M D T = 100 s D [NO 2 ] = 0.0009M D T = 100 s D [N 2 O 5 ] = -0.0018M 1/27/2009 3 2N 2 O 5 ( g ) 4NO 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) Reaction Rates Rate of O 2 Formation: Rate = D t D [O 2 ] = (0.0049 M - 0.0040 M) (400 s - 300 s) = 9.0 x 10-4 s Rate = D t D [NO 2 ]-(0.0197 M - 0.0016 M) (400 s - 300 s) = 3.6 x 10-3 M s Rate of NO 2 Formation: = The Rate of NO 2 is four times the Rate of O 2 formation! Reaction Rates 2N 2 O 5 ( g ) 4NO 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) Rate of N 2 O 5 Decay Rate = D t-D [N 2 O 5 ] Rate of O 2 Formation Rate = D t D [O 2 ] Rate = D t D [NO 2 ] Rate of NO 2 Formation 2N 2 O 5 ( g ) 4NO 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) Reaction Rates D [NO 2 ] D t 4 D [O 2 ] D t =- D [N 2 O 5 ] D t 2 D [O 2 ] D t = The rate of NO 2 FORMATION is four times as fast as the FORMATION of O 2 . The rate of N 2 O 5 DECAY is two times as fast as the FORMATION of O 2 . D [NO 2 ] D t D [O 2 ] D t- D [N 2 O 5 ] D t Rate = = = 1 2 1 4 General rate of reaction: aA + bB dD +eE Reaction Rates General rate of reaction:- D [B] D t- D [A] D t Rate = = = 1 a 1 b D [D] D t = 1 d D [E] D t 1 e Write a General rate of reaction expression for: The combustion of C 2 H 6 . 1/27/2009 4 0.01 0.02 0.03 200 400 600 800 [NO 2 ] Time(seconds) Reaction Rates Let’s Develop an Equation that relates the CONCENTREATION of each REACTANT to the RATE of the REACTION....
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2011 for the course CHEM 1b taught by Professor Cabrera during the Spring '10 term at San Jose City College.

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CHAPTER 12 notes - 1 Organic Chemistry Welcome to CHEMISTRY...

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