animal behavior march 13th

animal behavior march 13th - The Ecology of Behavior What's...

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The Ecology of Behavior What’s that? Behavioral Ecology – the study of the relationships between how animals behave and their environment Topics: foraging/hunting mating behavior habitat selection/maintenance nesting/ sheltering parental behavior migration orientation (talking about pinks today)
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The Ecology of Behavior Convergent Evolution: process by which distantly related organisms develop similar traits due to similar selective pressures Birds Insects Bats Analogy – the evolution of similar traits due to similar selection pressures (environments) rather than a common ancestral origin
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Divergent Evolution: process by which multiple species evolve from a single ancestor and become less similar over time due to the exploitation of different ecological niches The Ecology of Behavior Homology – trait similarity due to a common ancestor
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The Ecology of Behavior How does ecology drive convergent evolution? Process: 1. Identify ecological factors that seem to make behavior adaptive 2. Study only distantly related species that have similar ecological constrains 3. Do these species that are not closely related share similar adaptations or traits? 4. Is behavioral adaptation specific to the identified ecological “problem 5. Conc: behavior has converged in species with different evolution due to -------
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The Ecology of Behavior How does ecology drive divergent evolution? Process: 1. Study closely related species 1. Study species with different but stable and identifiable ecological constrains 1. Do both species show different/divergent adaptations? 1. Is behavioral adaptation specific to the identified ecological differences Conc: behavior is diversified by habitat/ecology
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The Ecology of Behavior Topic: parent offspring recognition 3 variables to focus on: species ecology behavior Hypothesis: parent/offspring recognition is an adaptive behavior It follows that recognition is adapative for parents in situations where they run the risk of feeding wrong/unrelated offspring Prediction: behavior wont evolve when there is no risk of feeding unrelated young
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The Ecology of Behavior Topic: parent offspring recognition Natural experiment: Herring gulls nest on the ground in big colonies Kittiwakes nest on cliffs – cliff nesting chicks don’t leave the nest until they fly- no chance of parasitism
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Manx shearwaters – nest individually in burrows The Ecology of Behavior Topic: parent offspring recognition Sooty terns – nest in colonies
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The Ecology of Behavior Topic: parent offspring recognition Common murres – nest on cliffs in groups Bank swallow – nest in bank colonies- young do not leave nest until fledge
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The Ecology of Behavior Topic: parent offspring recognition Laughing gulls – nest in colonies Penguins – nest on the beach in colonies Brown noddy – nest among trees
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animal behavior march 13th - The Ecology of Behavior What's...

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