animal behavior feb 28

animal behavior feb 28 - The Behavior of Enemies...

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The Behavior of Enemies Evolutionary Arms Race – the antagonistic reciprocal coevolution of genes, physiology, and behavior between: 1) predator and prey moths and bats roughskinned newts and garter nakes 2) parasite and host wasps and cockroaches humans and bacteria *rapid evolution * studied to understand how natural selection works
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Moths and Bats bats use echolocation to find, identify and capture their insect prey in the dark this is a nocturnal adaption create sonic images of physical objects by emitting high frequency sound pulses, they hear and anyalyse the returning echos use ultrasound above 20khz use sounds up to 100 khz
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Moths and Bats sound waves reflect off objects that are larger than the wavelength of the sound sound waves bigger than the object will pass over/ around the sound 100 kHz has a wavelength of 3 mm
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Moths and Bats 1. bats calculate the distance of a moth by measuring the time delay between a pulse and an echo 2. judge velocity of target by Doppler shifts in echo frequency 3. can detect wing flapping rate by comparing echoes of successive pulses. wings going up and down will reflect echoes from different distances and give the bat information about what the prey item is
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Moths and Bats large # of neurons in auditory cortex that are “tuned” to echolocation frequency range sensitive neurons: neurons respond only to specific pulse-echo delays *non linear response* wont respond to pulse and echo at another delay tracking: best P-E delay shortens as P rate goes up range tuned P-E delay is constant regardless of P rate
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Moths and Bats many noctuid moths display an escape behavior when hunted by bats evade bat by flying in opposite direction, diving, occasionally fly directly at bat the broadcasting bat calls alone evoke the response -flying away occurs when speaker is within 20-120 feet of moth -within 20 feet moth dives/flies wildly
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Noctuid moth Moths and Bats moths have evolved ears on thorax to detect bat calls
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Moths and Bats A1 receptor neuron responds best to sound pulses that match the duration of echolocation pulses
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course PSYC 2420 taught by Professor Wolley during the Spring '08 term at Columbia.

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animal behavior feb 28 - The Behavior of Enemies...

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