Lecture-1-notes - N152 Course Information Developmental...

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1 Karina S. Cramer [email protected] 9/22/11 Developmental Neurobiology N152 N152 : Course Information Class meets: Room 101 Rowland Hall, Tu Thu 9:30 -10:50 a.m. Final Exam: Thursday, December 8, 8:00 - 10:00 a.m. Professors: Dr. Karina S. Cramer [email protected] Office Hours: Thursday 1pm, room 2246 MH Dr. Susana Cohen-Cory [email protected] Office Hours: Thursday 1pm, room 2246 MH Teaching Assistant: Ana Nagel [email protected] Office Hours: Monday 11am, Bonney Lobby N152 : Course Information Textbook: Development of the Nervous System by Sanes, Reh, and Harris, 3rd edition Class Web Site: https://eee.uci.edu/11f/06211 Grading: Midterm Exam (October 25, 2011) 40% Final Exam (December 8, 2011) 40% Online quizzes 10% Neuroscience assignment 10% What is Developmental Neurobiology? • The study of how the nervous system is assembled during embryonic development and throughout later stages of life Takes into account anatomical and physiological changes, and focus is on cellular and molecular mechanisms. Considers specializations, but also seeks to determine rules for developmental processes, therefore requires examination of multiple systems. Must start with basic knowledge about mature nervous system organization and function.
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2 Course Goals What are the morphological events that lead to the formation of the mature nervous system? How do we find out about these events? What are the cellular and molecular events that lead to mature morphology and connectivity? What are the general kinds of molecular interactions? Conserved across species, reused during different stages of development. How do we test the roles of individual molecules? Fun Facts about the Brain • Usually 1 brain/person, weight about 2.5 lbs. •100,000 miles of axons/brain, conduct 200 MPH • Brain uses 20% of body's blood flow and energy • 25% of human genes are expressed in the brain • About 1,000,000,000,000 (10 12 ) neurons/brain - Each with thousands of inputs, up to 150,000 - Each separated from all others by 6 deg separation - Approximately 20 glial cells/neuron - Diameter = 8 - 80 μ m How do cells acquire their neuronal identity? Differential gene expression and signals that introduce differences between initially identical cells How do you achieve synaptic specificity? Tightly controlled developmental processes How does the nervous system develop? ?
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3 Figure 22-1 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Essential processes that make a multicellular organism …and cell death. How do we study nervous system development? • Model Systems • Experimental approaches Vertebrate models to study development Vertebrate models to study development Frogs – Xenopus laevis Fish – Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) Chick Mouse The basic machinery of development is the same not just in all vertebrates but in all the major phyla of invertebrates
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4 Frogs – Xenopus laevis • Adults are easily bred and maintained in laboratory • Embryos develop externally (outside of mother) • Can be viewed and manipulated throughout development • Individual cells can be labeled with lineage tracers - fate mapping
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