wind_turbine_design - Wind Turbine Blade Analysis using the...

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Wind Turbine Blade Analysis using the Blade Element Momentum Method. Version 1.1 Grant Ingram October 18, 2011 Copyright (c) 2005,2011 Grant Ingram, This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ 1
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Wind Turbine Blade Analysis Durham University Contents 1 Introduction 5 2 Blade Element Momentum Theory 5 3 Momentum Theory 5 3.1 Axial Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2 Rotating Annular Stream tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4 Blade Element Theory 7 4.1 Relative Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2 Blade Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5 Tip Loss Correction 12 6 Blade Element Momentum Equations 12 7 Power Output 13 8 Blade Design Procedure 13 9 Example using BEM Theory 15 9.1 5m Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9.1.1 Iteration 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 9.1.2 Iteration 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 9.1.3 Iteration 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9.2 Additional Radial Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 10 Summary 20 List of Figures 1 Axial Stream tube around a Wind Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Rotating Annular Stream tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Rotating Annular Stream tube: notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 The Blade Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5 Flow onto the turbine blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 Forces on the turbine blade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7 Lift and Drag Coefficients for a NACA 0012 Aerofoil . . . . . . . 11 Nomenclature a Axial induction factor 2
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Wind Turbine Blade Analysis Durham University a Angular induction factor B Number of blades c Aerofoil chord length C L Lift coefficient C D Drag coefficient C P Power coefficient D Drag force F x Axial force F θ Tangential force L Lift force, angular moment ˙ m Massflow N Number of blade elements p Pressure P Power Q Tip loss correction factor r radius and radial direction R Blade tip radius T Torque V Absolute velocity W Relative velocity x Axial coordinate β Relative flow angle onto blades λ Tip speed ratio λ r Local Tip speed ratio η Mechanical/electrical efficiency ρ Density σ Local Solidity 3
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Wind Turbine Blade Analysis Durham University θ Tangential coordinate Blade rotational speed ϖ Wake rotational speed γ Aerofoil inlet angle 4
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Wind Turbine Blade Analysis Durham University 1 2 3 4 V 1 V 4 Hub Blades Figure 1: Axial Stream tube around a Wind Turbine 1 Introduction This short document describes a calculation method for wind turbine blades, this method can be used for either analysis of existing machines or the design of new ones. More sophisticated treatments are available but this method has the advan-
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wind_turbine_design - Wind Turbine Blade Analysis using the...

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