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Week 6 - Week 6 Problem Solving Intelligence Edwin Boring...

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Week 6- Problem Solving + Intelligence Edwin Boring definition of intelligence: intelligence is whatever intelligence measures. <--Definition fails to capture important cognitive features of intelligence. psychologists make 2 assumptions: 1. Intelligence involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks 2. The capacity to learn from experience and adapt INTELLEGINCE: cognitive ability of an individual to learn form experience, to reason well, to remember important information, and to cope with the demands of daily living (as defined by Sternberg). -Problem solving captures the elements of our operational definition of intelligence. -psychologists are interested in understanding the strategies you use to solve problems to gain insight into human intelligence. -2 general types of problem solving: 1. Deductive reasoning= can come to a concrete conclusion based on a general idea. 2. Inductive reasoning= can generate a general idea given some concrete information. IN SCIENCE… Insight problem: a special category of problems that are designed to test your ability to “think outside the box” Functional fixedness: our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects. Reliability: A reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times. Validity: A valid test measures only the trait it is supposed to be measuring.
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Francis Galton: recorded how quickly subjects could respond to sensory motor tasks by their reaction time. Galton equated faster reaction times with higher intelligence. (questionable validity, but reliable) Alfred Binet: standardized intelligence tests Lewis Terman: further adapted scale-> Stanford-Binry test Charles Spearman: firm believer in idea of single type of intelligence (“G”) Howard Gardner: multiple intelligence theory and intelligence test -8 types 1. Linguistic- Verbal 2. Mathematical- Logical 3. Rhythmic- Musical 4. Spatial- Visual 5. Kinesthetic- Bodily 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Naturalistic Weschler: original intelligence test modeled on Binet’s scale 1. Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) 2. Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) -BOTH genetic and environmental factors play a role in intelligence
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