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ch2 part 2. (a&p) - ch 1 part 2 biochemistry...

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ch. 1 part 2---- biochemistry biochemistry: the study of the chemical compositions and reactions in living matter. All chemicals in the body fall into one of two major classes. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: all contain carbon and hydrogen. All have covalent bonds and most are large. INORGANIC COMPOUNDS: are all other compounds in the body that do not contain carbon. EX. Water,salts, and many acids and bases. Inorganic compounds: water: most abundant and most important. HIGH HEAT CAPASITY: Water can handle a lot of heat before it is effected. It prevents sudden temperature changes in the body by external factors, (such as wind or cold) HIGH HEAT OF VAPORIZATION: when we get too hot, we tend to sweat. The water evaporizes in our bodies and comes out of our pores to bring our body temp. down. POLAR SOLVENT PROPERTIES:water is the universal solvent. All chemical reactions in our body depend on water to be their solvent. Because water is a polar molecule, it is attracted to non polar molecules. Allowing a substance (like acids and bases) to be evenly distributed through out the water in our body. HYDRATION LAYERS: water forms a barrier around molecules protecting them from other charged particles and preventing the molecule from settling in a solution. Such pritienwater mixes are called “BIOLOGICAL COLLOIDS” blood plasma and erebrospinal fluid are examples of colloids. Water is the bodies major transport medium because it is such a great solvent. REACTIVITY: water is a very important reactant in our body. EX. When we eat food, our bodies attach a water molecule to each bond that needs to be broken. Such DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS are called HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS. When the water is removed to form a protein or carbohydrate it is called DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS. CUSHIONING: watery fluid is around a lot of major organs to protect them. Think of the brain, the fluid around the brain is “cushioning” it from harm.
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ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS .... acids,bases and salts are very important inorganic molecules. These solutions conduct electricity, so we call them ELECTROLYTES. NaCl ---> Na+ + Ci- Salts: acids and bases are also electrolytes. Acids:( sour taste,can react/dissolve many metals) an acid dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions(protons) and one or more negative ions- they break down, so they are referred to as “proton donors” they are easily talked out of their electrons.
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