MODULE2 LECTURE NOTES - Generalized structure of a cell and...

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Generalized structure of a cell and function of each organelle. cells vary greatly is size and shape. The diameters can vary from 2 micrometers to 10 centimeters(ostrich egg) some muscle cells are 30 centimeters long and some nerves are more than one meter long! (3.3 feet) history* robert hooke in the late 1600`s first observed plant cells through a microscope and he named them “cells” because of their resembelance of the cells in the monastary where he lived. In 1830 scheilden and schwann proposed that all living things were composed of cells. *basic concepts of cell theory the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells. Biochemical activity of cells are dictated by sub-cellular structure continuity of life has a cellular basis. 3 major regions of the cell: nucleus plasma membrane : the outside boundary of the cytoplasm which separates intracellular fliuds from extracellular fluidsand plays a dynamic role in cellular activity. cytoplasm: contains organells which are small structures that carry out cellular functions nucleus contains: chromatin: which coils forming chromosomes during cell division nucleolus: which is the site of ribisomal assembly nuclear membrane: which forms the outside boundary of the nucleus STRUCTURE OF PLASMA MEMBRANE: glycocalyx : a glycoprotein layer covering the cell that provides highly specific biological markers by which cells recognize one another.(think of cells being sugar coated- the sugar coating helps for cells to recognize eachother.) FLUID MOSAIC MODEL: depicts the plasma membrane as a thin structure composed of a double layer(bilayer) it has lipid molecules “plugged in” of dispersed into it. many of the proteins will float on the lipid bilayer, and form a constantly changing mosaic pattern. The fluid mosaic model is named for this characteristic. MEMBRANE LIPIDS : phospholipids outside of cell(extracellular fluid-watery environment) ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII hydrophilic heads(water loving) IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII hydrophobic tails (water hating) ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo inside of cell(cytoplasm-watery environment) MEMBRANE LIPIDS: glycolipids lipids with attached sugar groups. They are found only in the outer plasma membrane. They account for about 5% of the total membrane. It is somewhat like glycoproteins in that it has a glycolypid head(polar head) and a fatty acid tail(non-polar tail) it wedges its head between the phospholipid heads(hydrocarbon rings) on the outer surface of the membrane, stabilizing the membrane and increasing the fluidity and mobility of the membrane. MEMBRANE LIPIDS:
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2011 for the course BIO 1010 taught by Professor Rodp during the Spring '11 term at Volunteer State Community College.

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MODULE2 LECTURE NOTES - Generalized structure of a cell and...

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