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Unformatted text preview: *for next test, 10 questions from ch 1-5 and 40 from 6-10 2/1/11 Ch. 6 keywords 1. Cell theory 2. The biological scale 3. Prokaryote vs. plant vs. animal cell 4. Cellular organelles (function) 1. Nucleus 2. Rough ER, smooth ER 3. Ribosomes 4. Golgi 5. Lysosomes, peroxisomes, glyoxysomes 6. Mitochondria and chloroplast 5. The endomembrane system 6. Microtubules vs. filaments 7. Cilia and flagella 8. Intercellular junctions in plants and animals ** functions** focus on - Cells: fund o Too small to be seen by human eye Light microscope Magnification- 1000X Resolution- (point to point separation) of about .2 micrometers Contrast- (accentuates differences in parts of the sample) Only can see from 1 nanometer to 100 nm- Biological scale o Most subcellular organelles are too small to be resolved by a LM o Cell fractionation = to separate organelles and investigate their function o Have to have electron microscope to be able to see atoms Can give details of structures- Cell fractionation o Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another o Ultracentrifuges fractionate cells o Cell fractionation enables scientists to determine the function of organelles. o Measured in gravity (g) o Ribosomes need the hardest to be broken down into purest form- Comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells o Prokaryotes o Plant o Animal- Prokaryotic cell o Dont have arranged chromosomes- o Bacteria usually have 1 long net o Structures: Pili- used of attachment (not all) Flagella- locomotion some bacteria (not all) Capsule- jelly- like outer coating (not all)- made of mostly carbs. Cell wall- rigid (not all) Plasma membrane- control Nucleoid- where DNA is located (not enclosed in membrane)- #1 distinction between cells Ribosomes- proteins o Simple- Eukaryotic- o Animal cell Shows figure Structures only found in animals Centrosomes Lysosomes ***Understand func. Of all organelles inside cell o Nucleus: info central Holds the DNA **know structures Transcription occurs in nucleus- DNA mRNA Ribosomes Nucleolus o Synthesis of Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) o Assembly of ribosomes Where do we assemble ribosomes? The pores going in and out Ribosomes; protein factories o Smooth ER: Synthesizes lipids (fats, phospholipids, steroids) Metabolizes carbs Stores calcium o Rough ER: *Synthesis of glycoproteins (proteins covalently bonded to carbs) Distributes transport vesicles, proteins surrounded by membranes Target part. Cells to send proteins to. Is a membranes factory for the cell Assembling and distributing for the cell, o Golgi Apparatus Vesicle breaks off from ER, sent to cis golgi (side that faces ER), they going to fuse with it, travel through it, modification happen (help mature proteins), then come off trans golgi (facing plasma membrane), vesicule that comes off trans golgi then fuses with plasma membrane and secretes in and out of cell...
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