Lecture 1 - The Basics. 1 nucleus (protons, neutrons) cloud...

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1 The Basics. .. nucleus (protons, neutrons) “cloud” of electrons The mathematical equation that describe the properties of an electron is known as a wave equation ; the solution for this equation for a specific electron is its wavefunction (ø ). Each ø describes a unique electron in an orbital; the probability of finding an electron at a point in space is proportional to ø 2 . 1. Aufbau principle : orbitals are filled in order of increasing energy 2. Pauli Exclusion Principle : No more than two electrons may be present in an orbital, one with spin number +1/2 and the other with spin number -1/2. 3. Hund’s rule : When orbitals of equivalent energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fill all of them completely, then one electron is added to each orbital before a second is added to any one of them.
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2 1s 2s 2p Atomic Orbitals of Carbon C 6 12.011 Carbon has 6 electrons Energy
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3 Molecular orbitals (MOs) are formed by the combination of two atomic orbitals (AOs). These can be combined by addition
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Lecture 1 - The Basics. 1 nucleus (protons, neutrons) cloud...

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