19 - CIVE 2700 Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007...

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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 1 Composites Professor George Hadjisophocleous, Ph.D., P.Eng. Carleton University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Ottawa, Ontario CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 18.2 Outline • Introduction to composite materials • Matrix phase • Reinforcement phase • Properties of composites
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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 2 CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 18.3 Introduction What are “composite materials”? • Two or more chemically distinct constituents on a macro- scale • Distinct interface separates components • Typically one constituent is the matrix phase into which is embedded one or more reinforcement phases • Reinforcements may be fibres (1-D), particles (0-D), flakes (2-D), etc. • Examples: – Concrete reinforced with steel – Epoxy reinforced with graphite – Wood, bones, other ‘natural’ composites CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 18.4 Composites Usage and History 800 BCE Straw reinforced mud bricks (Egypt) 1940s Glass fibres developed 1960s Boron, carbon and aramid fibres 1960s Metal matrix composites (MMC) 1980s Polymer matrix composites (PMC) dominate present Continued development and integration of PMCs 20% 6% 12% 10% 12% 5% 3% 1% 31% Aircraft/aerospace/military Applicance/business equipment Construction Consumer polymers Corrosion-resistant equipment Electrical/electronic Marine Transportation Other Polymer Composite Usage (US, 1995) Total: 1.5 MT, $10B USD, 10% annual growth
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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 3 CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 18.5 Why Use Composites? • Advanced design requirements – reduced weight allowances with the same requirements on stiffnesses and strength • Improved specific stiffness, specific strength, fatigue resistance, impact resistance • Corrosion/environmental resistance • Tailorable mechanical and physical properties • Integrated manufacturing – can manufacture large parts with fewer (or one!) pieces CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 18.6 Disadvantages of Composites • Increased capabilities in some areas (strength, stiffness) may result in degraded performance in other areas (in-service temperatures, moisture, etc) • High cost for fabrication ($650-$900/kg, finished) • Increased difficulty in materials characterization, design and analysis – Lack of general expertise in composites • Repair of in-service parts is neither simple or cheap • Recycling or reuse of parts is uncommon and expensive
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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 4 CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 18.7 Constituents Matrix Polymers – Thermoset – Thermoplastic Metals Ceramics Reinforcement Particles Fibres – Short • Aligned • Random – Long • Unidirectional • Woven • Laminated Interface Region between matrix and
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19 - CIVE 2700 Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007...

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