13 - CIVE 2700 Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007...

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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 1 Structural Steels Professor George Hadjisophocleous, Ph.D., P.Eng. Carleton University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Ottawa, Ontario CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 13.2 Objectives • To learn the following – manufacturing process of steel – applications of steels – types of steels – steel shapes
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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 2 CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 13.3 Introduction Steel is the most useful of the industrial metals. Applications: Used for beams, girders, columns, struts, plates and bars. Primary purpose of these members to support loads Also used as reinforcement material in Portland cement to resist tensile stresses (bars, wires, and strands) Non-structural applications: roofing, siding, decking, joist, studs, flooring and exterior interior partition walls. Sections are formed form large castings by a series of rolling operations. Properties can be changed by heat treatment CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 13.4 Steel as a Structural Material • Steel is a man-made material derived from iron. In structural grades, iron is 95% of the composition. • The other constituents are from the following list: • Constituents that are always present – Carbon C – Manganese Mg – Silicon Si – Phosphorous P – Sulphur S
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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 3 CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 13.5 Steel Additives • Added to improve mechanical properties or corrosion resistance or both – Copper Cu – Nickel Ni – Chromium Cr – Vanadium V – Columbium Cb In addition, aluminum and/or silicon may be added to molten metal as deoxidizers. CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 13.6 Steel Composition • Alloy of iron and carbon • By definition steel has maximum carbon content of 2.0% • Structural steels contain less than 0.30% carbon • Classified as plain-carbon or low alloy steels • In plain carbon the amount of carbon and manganese are restricted, other alloying elements are not used
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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 4 CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 13.7 Steel Composition • In low alloy steels carbon content is also restricted; increased strength is obtained using other alloying elements such as nickel, chromium and molybdenum (up to 8%) • Carbon is the most important element in steel; affects strength and ductility • Increased carbon content increases strength and decreases ductility CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering materials, Winter 2007, 13.8 Manufacturing Process • The manufacture of steel begins at the blast furnace. • Raw materials
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2011 for the course CIVE 2*** taught by Professor - during the Spring '11 term at Carleton CA.

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13 - CIVE 2700 Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007...

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