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13 - 1 Photo C Samson Little beehive Alberta STRUCTURAL...

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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 1 STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY Instructor: Claire Samson, Ph.D., P.Eng. Photo: C. Samson Little beehive, Alberta
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 2 Reading assignment Please read Kehew’s book to complement the material presented in this lecture: Chap. 8 p. 251-269 in 3 rd Edition Chap. 7 p. 177-196 in 2 nd Edition
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 3 Lecture objectives To be able to describe fractures and folds To be aware of how rock structures might impact engineering work
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 4 Contents • Deformation Mapping planar and linear features • Fractures – Faults – Joints • Folds Engineering considerations
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 5 Deformation
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 6 Basic definitions Deformation : alteration of size and/or shape Structural geology : Earth science discipline studying – The processes responsible for the deformation of the Earth’s crust – The geological structures produced by deformation • Faults • Joints • Folds
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 7 Stress and strain Stress ( ! ): Force applied per unit area [N/m 2 ] – Normal stress: component of stress perpendicular to a given plane Compressional: to shorten a body Tensional: to pull apart a body – Shear: component of stress applied parallel to a given plane
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 8 Shear Tension Compression Normal stresses
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 9 Stress and strain Strain ( " ): Changes in the shape and/or size of a body as a result of stress [dimensionless]
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 10 Mapping planar and linear features
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 11 Planar features Attitude : orientation of a geological feature in space Attitude of planar feature can be defined uniquely by specifying two angles with respect to a plane of reference – Strike – Dip
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 12 Coordinate system Plane of reference most often used is the Earth’s surface Depth North East Earth surface
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 13 Strike Angle between: – The line produced by the intersection of the planar geological feature with the horizontal plane of reference – and – – Geographical north (clockwise) • 0° ! strike ! 360° – Right-handle rule: keeping dipping strata always to the right
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 14 Vertical plane Strike " 20° North Earth surface East Depth Strike
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 15 Dip Dip: angle of inclination of the planar geological feature measured from the horizontal plane of reference Two elements to specify: – Angle – Direction toward which the planar feature is inclined Dip always measured perpendicular to strike
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 16 Strike = 0° Dip " 70° east North Earth surface East Depth Dip 70
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 17 Strike = 180° Dip " 70° west North Depth Dip 70 Earth surface West
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 18 Strike " 20° Dip " 70° northeast North Earth surface East Depth Strike Dip Direction perdendicular to strike 70
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ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 19 Linear features
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