13 - 1 Photo: C. Samson Little beehive, Alberta STRUCTURAL...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–19. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 1 STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY Instructor: Claire Samson, Ph.D., P.Eng. Photo: C. Samson Little beehive, Alberta
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 2 Reading assignment • Please read Kehew’s book to complement the material presented in this lecture: Chap. 8 p. 251-269 in 3 rd Edition Chap. 7 p. 177-196 in 2 nd Edition
Background image of page 2
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 3 Lecture objectives • To be able to describe fractures and folds • To be aware of how rock structures might impact engineering work
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 4 Contents • Deformation • Mapping planar and linear features • Fractures – Faults – Joints • Folds • Engineering considerations
Background image of page 4
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 5 Deformation
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 6 Basic definitions Deformation : alteration of size and/or shape Structural geology : Earth science discipline studying – The processes responsible for the deformation of the Earth’s crust – The geological structures produced by deformation • Faults • Joints • Folds
Background image of page 6
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 7 Stress and strain Stress ( ! ): Force applied per unit area [N/m 2 ] – Normal stress: component of stress perpendicular to a given plane • Compressional: to shorten a body • Tensional: to pull apart a body – Shear: component of stress applied parallel to a given plane
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 8 Shear Tension Compression Normal stresses
Background image of page 8
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 9 Stress and strain Strain ( " ): Changes in the shape and/or size of a body as a result of stress [dimensionless]
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 10 Mapping planar and linear features
Background image of page 10
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 11 Planar features Attitude : orientation of a geological feature in space • Attitude of planar feature can be defined uniquely by specifying two angles with respect to a plane of reference – Strike – Dip
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 12 Coordinate system • Plane of reference most often used is the Earth’s surface Depth North East Earth surface
Background image of page 12
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 13 Strike • Angle between: – The line produced by the intersection of the planar geological feature with the horizontal plane of reference – and – – Geographical north (clockwise) • 0° ! strike ! 360° – Right-handle rule: keeping dipping strata always to the right
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 14 Vertical plane Strike " 20° North Earth surface East Depth Strike
Background image of page 14
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 15 Dip • Dip: angle of inclination of the planar geological feature measured from the horizontal plane of reference • Two elements to specify: – Angle – Direction toward which the planar feature is inclined • Dip always measured perpendicular to strike
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 16 Strike = 0° Dip " 70° east North Earth surface East Depth Dip 70
Background image of page 16
ERTH2404/14 Structural geology 17 Strike = 180° Dip " 70° west North Depth Dip 70 Earth surface West
Background image of page 17

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Structural geology 18 Strike
Background image of page 18
Image of page 19
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/13/2011 for the course CIVE 2*** taught by Professor - during the Spring '11 term at Carleton CA.