17 - 1 Shown with permission GROUND WATER Instructor Claire...

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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 1 GROUND WATER Instructor: Claire Samson, Ph.D., P.Eng. Shown with permission.
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 2 Reading assignment • Please read Kehew’s book to complement the material presented in this lecture: Chap. 11 in 3 rd Edition Chap. 11 in 2 nd Edition
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 3 Lecture objectives • To understand ground water flow as described in Darcy’s Law • To be able to describe the two types of aquifers • To be able to describe step by step how a water well is drilled • To be aware of issues related to drinking water quality
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 4 Contents • Statistics and definitions • Darcy’s Law and ground-water flow • Aquifers • Water wells • Water quality
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 5 Statistics and definitions
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 6 Hydrologic cycle • The hydrologic cycle describes the constant exchange of water between oceans, atmosphere and continents – Has been operating on Earth for over 4 Ga Hydrosphere : the global waters of the Earth – Liquid and solid – Fresh and salty
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 7 Ref.: Abbott, P.L. 2004. Natural Disasters. 4 th Edition. Fig. 1.19. Shown with permission.
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 8 Statistics • Total volume of water on Earth = 1.36 billion km 3 – 97.20 % seawater 2.15 % glacier ice 0.62 % ground water 0.03 % inland seas, lakes, rivers, moisture in soil, atmosphere
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 9 Statistics • Why do people rely on ground waterA – Ground water is the largest reservoir of fresh water readily available to humans • 94% of Earth’s available fresh water is ground water (excluding glaciers) – Surface water is often limited in quantity – Surface water needs to be extensively treated before drinking
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 10 Statistics • 26% of Canadians rely of ground water for crop, livestock and domestic use – 2/3 of users in rural areas • Atlantic Provinces are heavily dependent on ground water – 100% in Prince Edward Island • 90% of Ontario farms – 1/3 of users in small communities • Many small communities in the Prairies use ground water wells for municipal supply
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ERTH2404/14 Ground water 11 Statistics • Ground water is often an overexploited natural resource – Managed like a non-renewable resource – Between 1972 and 1991, Canada’s ground water withdrawal increased by 80% while the population only increased by 3% – 20,000 new wells per year in Ontario – Ground water provides 30% of Ontario drinking water
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Ground water 12 fones oF subsurFace water Zone of aeration : water in this zone cannot be pumped by wells ReF.: Kehew, A.E. 1995. Geology For Engineers & Environmental Scientists. 2
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17 - 1 Shown with permission GROUND WATER Instructor Claire...

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