19 - [email protected](14 Glacial processes and permafrost 1 GLAC=AL...

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Unformatted text preview: ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 1 GLAC=AL PROCESSES AND PER¡AFROST =nstructor: Claire Samson, Ph.D., P.Eng. Photo: F. Darbyshire, GSC ElephantFoot Glacier, eastGreenland ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost % Reading assignment M Please read Nehew¡s book to complement the material presented in this lecture: Chap. 1¢ p. ¢S£-¢75 in S rd Edition Chap. 15 in % nd Edition ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost S Lecture objectives M To be aware that several cold periods occurred throughout geological time M To know how glaciers form and flow M To be able to describe the deposits and landforms created by glaciers as erosion agents M To be aware of the challenges of doing engineering work in permafrost ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 4 Contents M Glaciers Z =ce ages Z Formation of glaciers M Glacial erosion M Glacial deposits M Permafrost ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 5 Glaciers ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost ¡ Hydrologic cycle M The hydrologic cycle describes the constant exchange of water between oceans, atmosphere and continents Z Has been operating on Earth for over 4 Ga M Hydrosphere : the global waters of the Earth Z Liquid and solid Z Fresh and salty ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 7 ]asic definitions M Hydrology : science that studies the properties, circulation and distribution of water, on and under the EarthPs surface and in the atmosphere, including environmental and economic aspects Z Hydrogeology : science that deals with ground water and with geological aspects of surface water Z Glaciology : study of all the processes associated with snow and ice ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost ¡ Ref.: Abbott, P.L. %004. Natural Disasters. 4 th Edition. Fig. 1.19. Shown with permission. ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 9 Statistics M Total volume of water on Earth _ 1.¡¢ billion km ¡ Z 97.%0 ‘ seawater Z 2.15 % glacier ice Z 0.¢% ‘ ground water Z 0.0¡ ‘ inland seas, lakes, rivers, moisture in soil, atmosphere ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 10 ]asic definitions M Cryosphere : portion of the hydrosphere consisting of the worldAs ice masses and snow deposits Z =ncludes: M =ce sheets M Snow cover M Glaciers M Lake, river and sea ice M Seasonally froben ground and permafrost ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 11 Ice ages ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 1% Several cold periods in EarthPs geological history Ref.: Abbott, ¡.L. %004. NaturalDisasters. 4 th Edition. Fig. 9.9. Shownwithpermission. ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 1S Pleistocene epoch M Cost of the major glacial stages occurred during the Pleistocene epoch ¡10,000 year Z 1.¢ Ca) of the £uaternary period Z Portion of the Earth¤s surface covered by glaciers M ¥urrently ! 10‘ M =n the Pleistocene ! S0‘ ERTH%404(14 Glacial processes and permafrost 14 Extent of ice during last glaciation Ref.: Abbott, P.L. %004. NaturalDisasters. 4 th Edition. Fig. 9.%%. Shownwithpermission. ERTH%404(14...
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19 - [email protected](14 Glacial processes and permafrost 1 GLAC=AL...

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