20 - ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSMENTS(ESAs and SUBSURFACE...

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1 ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSMENTS (ESAs) and SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION P. Fernberg, P.Geo. C. Samson, Ph.D., P.Eng.
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2 Reading assignment Please read Kehew’s book to complement the material presented in this lecture: Chap. 12 p. 450-461 in 3 rd Edition Chap. 16 p. 520-528 in 2 nd Edition
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3 Lecture objectives To know the main sources of subsurface contamination and their origin To understand the difference between Phase 1, 2 and 3 Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs) To be aware why Phase 1 ESAs are done To know how a Phase 1 ESA is prepared
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4 Lecture objectives To be aware of why Phase 2 ESAs are done To know how a Phase 2 ESA is conducted To be aware of several Phase 2 investigative techniques
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5 Contents Sources of subsurface contamination Environmental site assessments – Phase 1 – Phase 2
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6 Sources of subsurface contamination
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7 Sources of contamination On the land surface In the unsaturated zone In the saturated zone Ref.: Kehew, A.E. 1998. Geology for Engineers & Environmental Scientists. 2 nd Edition. Fig. 11.4. Shown with permission. Saturated zone Unsaturated zone
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8 Sources of contamination Examples Originating on the land surface – Point sources: contaminants originating from a single, localized source • Accidental spills – Nonpoint sources: contaminants applied to large surface areas • Deicing chemicals Pesticides and fertilizers
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9 Ref.: Kehew, A.E. 1998. Geology for Engineers & Environmental Scientists. 2 nd Edition. Fig.16-1. Shown with permission.
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10 Sources of contamination Examples Originating in the unsaturated zone – Septic tanks – Landfills – Underground leakage • Storage tanks • Pipelines • A majority of contaminants originate above the water table
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11 Sources of contamination Examples Originating in the saturated zone – Contaminated wells – Mines – Lateral intrusion of saline water
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12 Environmental site assesments
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13 ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSMENTS (ESAs) Purpose identify existence, source, nature & extent of contamination by hazardous substances, and, determine threat to human health or environment by the contamination Methodology phased approach, progressively intrusive Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 (Phase 4, 5)
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14 ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSMENTS (ESAs) Phase 1 (environmental site assessment) site history & inspection identify potential environmental concerns no soil / water sampling inexpensive $ ! 1000 to $ 2500 plus Phase 2 (environmental site investigation) soil & water testing on site for suspected contaminants; confirm & identify moderately expensive $ 8,000 to $ 15,000 Phase 3 (remedial action plan) design, implementation, monitoring clearance testing after contaminated site remediated expensive $10,000 to $100,000s
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15 ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSMENTS (ESAs) Contaminated Sites areas where toxic & hazardous substances exist at levels posing existing or imminent threat to human health or the environment e.g: material production sites, landfills, dumps, waste storage / treatment, mine tailings, spill sites, chemical storage
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