l2 - CIVE 2700 Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007...

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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 1 Mechanical Properties Professor George Hadjisophocleous, Ph.D., P.Eng. Carleton University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Ottawa, Ontario CIVE 2700, Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 2 Outline • Objectives • Stresses and strain • Stress-strain curve • Mechanical properties • Tensile test • Brazil test CIVE 2700, Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 3 Objectives • Understand the qualitative and quantitative prescriptions of mechanical properties of materials • Learn the various tests used to characterize and quantify mechanical properties of materials CIVE 2700, Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 4 Introduction • Engineers must understand how mechanical properties are measured and what they represent. • Properties of materials are used in the design of structures and components to ensure that unacceptable deformations and failure do not occur. • Materials, when in service, are subjected to forces or loads, such as: – Structural loads – Wind loads – Snow loads – Earthquake loads CIVE 2700, Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 5 Introduction • The mechanical behaviour of a material reflects the relationship between its response or deformation to an applied load or force. • Important mechanical properties are strength, hardness, ductility, and stiffness. • The mechanical properties of materials are measured by carefully designed laboratory experiments that replicate as nearly as possible the service conditions. CIVE 2700, Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 6 Introduction • Factors to be considered include: • Nature of the applied load – tensile, compressive, shear – magnitude can be constant with time or fluctuate continuously • Duration of load – application time can be a fraction of a second or years • Environmental conditions. – temperature
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CIVE 2700 – Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 2 CIVE 2700, Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 7 Introduction • It is imperative that there is consistency in the manner in which tests are conducted, and in the interpretation of their results. • This is accomplished by using standardized testing techniques. • Establishment and publication of these standards are often coordinated by professional societies. • In the United States the most active organization is the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). CIVE 2700, Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007 8 Response Of Materials To Stress • When a material is subjected to external loading it deforms instantaneously. • These deformations are reversible as long as stresses are small. • Such deformations are called elastic.
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2011 for the course CIVE 2*** taught by Professor - during the Spring '11 term at Carleton CA.

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l2 - CIVE 2700 Civil Engineering Materials, Winter 2007...

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