Macroanatomy

Macroanatomy - 1 Macroanatomy 1 Anatomy…why oh why y The...

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Unformatted text preview: 8/22/2007 1 Macroanatomy 1 Anatomy…why oh why?!!? y The singulum is a principal association tract located directly above the entorhinal cortex, a cortical area proximal to the amygdala that is rich in interconnections with the hippocampus and other limbic structures. y Bilateral lesion of lower medial quadrant of the orbitofrontal Bilateral lesion of lower medial quadrant of the orbitofrontal areas and anterior cingulate bundle is a great neurosurgical procedure for severe OCD with 84% success rate and no long term side effects. 2 Gross Structure and Function of Nervous System 3 8/22/2007 2 Functions y Detect stimuli in the environment y Determine the significance of the environmental stimuli y Make a decision based on the stimuli y Execute a response 4 Nervous System Organization Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral nervous system Brain Spinal Cord Autonomic Nervous system Sympathetic Nervous system Parasympathetic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System 5 Approximate numbers of neurons in central nervous system 6 8/22/2007 3 Terminology 7 Anatomical Directions 8 Dorsal - Ventral y Dorsal- toward the back y Ventral- toward the stomach 9 8/22/2007 4 Anterior - Posterior y Anterior – toward the front end y Posterior- toward the rear end 10 Lateral - Medial y Lateral –Toward the side, away from the midline y Medial – toward the midline, away from the side 11 Other directional Terms Term Definition Superior Above another part Inferior Below another part Proximal Located close to the point of origin or attachment Distal Located more distant from the point of origin or attachment Contralateral On the opposite of the body (kidneys) Ipsilateral On the same side of the body (2 on the left) Rosteral (anterior) Toward the head Caudal (posterior) Toward the tail 12 8/22/2007 5 Finding your way around 13 14 15 8/22/2007 6 Neuroaxis helps define 16 Humans make it a little more difficult 17 18 8/22/2007 7 19 Coronal plane (frontal plane) y A plain that shows brain structures as seen from the front 20 Sagittal plane y A plane that shows brain structures as seen from the side 21 8/22/2007 8 Horizontal plane (transverse plane) y A plane that shows brain structures as seen from above 22 Directional Terms - Brain rostral caudal dorsal superior rostral anterior posterior ventral inferior 23 Directional Terms - Brainstem and Spinal Cord the brain takes a turn at the cephalic flexure rostral superior caudal inferior dorsal posterior ventral anterior 24 8/22/2007 9 Directional Terms - Sections Horizontal cut Has symmetry (mirror images) Long (oval) 25 Directional Terms - Sections Coronal cut Has symmetry (mirror images) round (circle-sort of) 26 Directional Terms - Sections Sagittal cut Does not have symmetry 27 8/22/2007 10 What kind of cut is this?...
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Macroanatomy - 1 Macroanatomy 1 Anatomy…why oh why y The...

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