Class 3 - Class 3 Process Creation Simulation Process...

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Class 3 Process Creation & Simulation
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Process Creation
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Hierarchical Approach to Conceptual Design (Artist’s Approach) Raw materials Desired products - Conceptualize (brainstorm) process options - First develop simple solutions and then follow with successive layers of detail - Apply common sense, heuristics and analysis - Find the “best” alternative Advantages : Allows cost estimation at every level of hierarchy; look for alternative routes, terminate project if need be Disadvantages : It is virtually impossible to identify all alternatives, let alone to analyze them all; optimal design unlikely
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Process Creation Steps 1. Understand Defined Opportunity 2. Create Process Database - Literature Search (Internal & External) - Thermophysical Property Data Perry’s Handbook CRC Handbook of Physics & Chemistry Properties of Gases & Liquids (Reid et al) Data for Process Design & Engineering Practice (Wood) Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data Collection (Gmehling) - Environmental & Safety Data - Chemical & Utility Prices Chemical Marketing Reporter (web site for students) Vendor Direct Contact (Best) Internal Transfer Costs Table 23.1 in Text - Research Experiments
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Process Creation Steps (continued) 3. Preliminary Process Synthesis (Raw Materials ==> Desired Product) - Processing Mode (Continuous or Batch) - State of Raw Materials, Products, & By-Products - Process Option Brainstorming (Alternatives) - Reduction of Process Options (Synthesis Tree Considerations) 4. Development of Base Case - Detailed Process Flowsheet (Design Team) Process Integration Detailed Database - Pilot Plant Testing - Process Simulation (HYSYS TM ) 5. Process Costing & Economic Profitability Analysis
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Synthesis Tree (chemistry) (recycle & excess reactants) (columns, extractors, absorbers) (heat exchangers, pumps, compressors) (Flow sheet)
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To satisfy the need for an additional 800 MM lb/yr of vinyl chloride (VC), the following plausible alternatives might be generated 1. Purchase VC by expanding a competitor’s nearby 2 B lb/yr plant (100 miles away) and ship by truck or train 2. Purchase and ship chlorine (produced by electrolysis of NaCl) by pipeline from a nearby plant and react it with ethylene to produce VC and HCl as a by-product 3. Because HCl is available at low cost internally, react HCl with acetylene, or ethylene and oxygen to produce 1,2-dichloroethane, an intermediate that can be cracked to VC 4. Design an electrolysis plant to produce Cl 2 . Then, react Cl 2 via Alternative 2
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Process Creation Example (manufacture of vinyl chloride monomer) polymerize vinyl chloride
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(1) Put together physical/chemical properties database (2) Get MSD (materials safety data) sheets for all chemicals Generation of Chemical Database
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Synthesis Tree (chemistry) (recycle & excess reactants) (columns, extractors, absorbers) (heat exchangers, pumps, compressors) (Flow sheet) (1) (5) (4) (3) (2)
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Step 1. Investigate Reaction Paths (a) Brainstorm Reaction Options (b) Evaluate “Gross Profit” for Options & Eliminate non-viable Options (c) Carry out Capacity & Rate Calculations for Material Balances for Viable Options
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Process Option Brainstorming 1.
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