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Solar Field Overview

# Solar Field Overview - Overview of Solar Thermal Central...

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Overview of Solar Thermal Central Receiver Field Design Allan Lewandowski November, 2010

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Outline Solar Concentrator Concepts Trough, Dish, Central Receiver High Temperature Design Why Concentration is Necessary Nonimaging Secondary Concentrators System Design & Performance Site Factors Amount and Distribution of Direct Irradiance Central Receiver Hourly & Annual Performance
Parabolic Trough Central Receiver Dish/Stirling Concentrating Photovoltaics CSP Technology Overview

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64 MWe Solargenix Solar Electric Plant: Boulder City, NV
Central Receiver Examples Enhanced oil recovery, early 80’s Small central receiver 30 MWth Solar Plant

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Basic Performance Calculations Assume only radiative heat losses Mostly true at high temperatures Blackbody radiation to ambient temperature environment q = εσ (Tr4-Ta4) [W/m2] σ = 5.67*10-8 W/m2K ε = 1.0 Perfect optics (i.e., no reflectance loss or surface contour errors) Qin = I*Aconcentrator I=Direct Irradiance, W/m2 Qloss = qAaperture Qnet = Qin-Qloss
Concentrated Solar Radiation H L Carnot maximum T T 1 - = η = η 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Temperature [K] 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Carnot receiver η η Carnot 1000 5,000 10,000 20,000 40,000 For: I = 1 kW/m2 (1 sun) σ = 5.67.10-8 W/m2K2 ÷ ÷ × σ - = η I C T 1 4 H receiver Original figure by Aldo Steinfeld

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Basic Performance Modified for Non-Ideal Solar Efficiency Qin = η s*I*Aconcentrator I=Direct Irradiance, W/m2 η s = solar field efficiency Qloss = σ (Tr4-Ta4)* Aaperture Qnet = Qin-Qloss η = Qnet/Qin,max Qin,max=I*Aconcentrator η = (Qin-Qloss)/Qin,max η = η s- σ (Tr4-Ta4)/I*C C=Aconcentrator/Aaperture
Nonimaging Optics Primer Use of nonimaging optics in conjunction with imaging systems allows a much closer approach to theoretical concentration limits than imaging systems alone Csingle stage = sin2 θ c • cos2 θ Cnonimaging = sin-2 θ c Fundamental tradeoff between acceptance angle and concentration Slight difference for tower applications One ‘Ideal” concentrator:

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Solar Field Overview - Overview of Solar Thermal Central...

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