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CTS-Session-03-Cmpnt - Session Session 03 Optical...

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Session 03 LT/CTS-03/1009 1 of 36 Optical Components
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Main Reference Optical Components LT/CTS-03/1009 2 of 36 Chapter 9, 10, 11, 13
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FO Communication System LT/CTS-03/1009 3 of 36
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Fiber-optic cables many miles long can be constructed and interconnected for the purpose of transmitting information. Fiber-optic cables have immense information- carrying capacity (wide bandwidth). FO Communication System LT/CTS-03/1009 4 of 36 Hundreds of telephone conversations may be transmitted simultaneously at microwave frequencies, many thousands of signals can be carried on a light beam through a fiber-optic cable.
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FO Communication System The information signal to be transmitted may be voice, video, or computer data. Information must be first converted to a form compatible with the communication medium, usually by converting analog signals to digital pulses. LT/CTS-03/1009 5 of 36 These digital pulses are then used to flash a light source off and on very rapidly. The light beam pulses are then fed into a fiber-optic cable, which can transmit them over long distances.
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At the receiving end, a light-sensitive device known as a photocell, or light detector, is used to detect the light pulses. The photocell converts the light pulses into an electrical signal. FO Communication System LT/CTS-03/1009 6 of 36 The electrical signals are amplified and reshaped back into digital form. They are fed to a decoder, such as a D/A converter, where the original voice or video is recovered.
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Light Sources Characteristics Types Laser LT/CTS-03/1009 7 of 36 square4 Principles square4 Wave Length Performance
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Light Source Considerations Wavelength, spectral width and power are major light source considerations. The light sources must meet several requirements: square4 Wavelength should be within the window of optical fiber. square4 Power must span the distance to the receiver or must be adequate to reach the receiver but not too LT/CTS-03/1009 8 of 36 high to overload the receiver and cause non linear effect. square4 The range of wave length must not effect transmission bandwidth. square4 The emiited wave should be modulated to transfer the information into the transmitting fiber. Primary light sources are LED and diode lasers.
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Light Source Considerations Signal attenuation and bandwidth (pulse dispersion) depend on wavelength. Single frequency lasers limit chromatic dispersion. Transmission bands are chosen to match windows LT/CTS-03/1009 9 of 36 of low dispersion, or low absorption, inexpensive transmitter. Glass fiber for wavelength around 1280-1620 nm, zero dispersion standard single mode 1530-1565 nm.
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Light Source Considerations Fiber optic systems require light sources that can be modulated with a signal and transmitted efficiently into a fiber.
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