Conditional SentencesStructure :A conditional sentence is composed of 2 parts :If-clause +Main ClauseExample :If it rains tomorrow, we will not come.If-clauseMain Clause
Conditional SentencesTypes :There are 4 types of conditional sentences. They are classified according to the degree of probability that they express.Each type of conditional sentences uses different tenses to show the difference in the degree of probability.The order of the two clauses is flexible, it’s not important. But if the if-clause comes first, it must be followed bya comma.If it rains, I’ll stay at home
Zero Conditional: If /when + present tense ….. / modalWater boils if it reaches 100ºFirst Conditional: If/unless + present,….. FutureIf I study, I’ll passSecond Conditional: If + past, ……would +inf.If I studied, I would passThird Conditional: If + past perfect ….. would have + ppIf I had studied, I would have passedConditional Sentences
Zero ConditionalsTense :Present tense in both clausesExample :If you heat water to 100°C, it boils.If you pour oil into water, it floats.Present TensePresent Tense
Zero ConditionalsUse :Talk about universal truth.If you heatice, it turnsto waterTo talk about habitsIfIsee a spider, I get very scared!
First ConditionalsTense :If-clause ~ Present TenseMain Clause ~ Future TenseIf I feel sick tomorrow, I will not go to school.If it rains, the match will be cancelled.Present TenseFuture Tense
First ConditionalsUse :To speak about possible or probable future events.If the weather is as sunny tomorrow as it was today, we will go surfing.To make promises or warningsIf you forget my birthday, I’ll never speak to you again.To give commandsIfyou are tired, goto bed!In this case the verb in the main clause is an Imperative
Exercise One. First Conditionals1.If you ___________________ (not come),You ________________ (miss ) the show.do not comewill miss2.John __________________ (buy)a car if he _____________ (get) a job.will buygets3.Mary ________________(get) a toothache if she_________________ (eat) too many sweets.will geteats
Second ConditionalsTense :If-clause ~ Past TenseMain Clause ~ would + an infinitiveExample :If he were a bird, he would fly across the harbour.If I had $200,000 now, I would buy a car.Past TenseWould + infinitive
Second ConditionalsUse :To speak about present and future situations which are unlikely to happen.If I had any money I would lend it to you.If I were you I wouldn't do this.MINDWereis often used instead of wasin the 1st and 3rd person singular
Third ConditionalsTense :If-clause ~ Past Perfect TenseMain Clause ~ Would Have + Past Participle If I had had enough money, I would have bought the camera yesterday.If I had come home earlier, I would not have missed the programme.Past Perfect TenseWould have+ Past Participle
Third ConditionalsUse :To speak about impossible past eventsIf they’d gone by bus, they would have arrived much later.