P&ICH1 - Programming and Interfacing the 8051...

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Programming and Interfacing the 8051 Microcontroller in C and Assembly Sencer Yeralan, P.E., Ph.D. Helen Emery Rigel Press, a Division of Rigel Corporation
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CHAPTER 1 ARCHITECTURE 1.1. Microprocessors and Microcontrollers A digital computer typically consists of three major components: the Central Processing Unit (CPU), program and data memory, and an Input/Output (I/O) system. The CPU controls the flow of information among the components of the computer. It also processes the data by performing digital operations. Most of the processing is done in the Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) within the CPU. When the CPU of a computer is built on a single printed circuit board, the computer is called a minicomputer. A microprocessor is a CPU that is compacted into a single-chip semiconductor device. Microprocessors are general-purpose devices, suitable for many applications. A computer built around a microprocessor is called a microcomputer. The choice of I/O and memory devices of a microcomputer depends on the specific application. For example, most personal computers contain a keyboard and monitor as standard input and output devices. A microcontroller is an entire computer manufactured on a single chip. Microcontrollers are usually dedicated devices embedded within an application. For example, microcontrollers are used as engine controllers in automobiles and as exposure and focus controllers in cameras. In order to serve these applications, they have a high concentration of on-chip facilities such as serial ports, parallel input- output ports, timers, counters, interrupt control, analog-to-digital converters, random access memory, read only memory, etc. The I/O, memory, and on-chip peripherals of a microcontroller are selected depending on the specifics of the target application. Since microcontrollers are powerful digital processors, the degree of control and programmability they provide significantly enhances the effectiveness of the application. Embedded control applications also distinguish the microcontroller from its relative, the general-purpose microprocessor. Embedded systems often require real-time operation and multitasking capabilities. Real-time operation refers to the fact that the embedded controller must be able to receive and process the signals from its environment as they are received. That is, the environment must not wait for the con- troller to become available. Similarly, the controller must perform fast enough to output control signals to its environment when they are needed. Again, the environment must not wait for the controller. In other words, the embedded controller
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P&ICH1 - Programming and Interfacing the 8051...

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