Ch2 - PLEASE NOTE: The Instructors Resources files lose...

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PLEASE NOTE: The Instructor’s Resources files lose their formatting in the conversion from Quark XPress® to Microsoft Word®. The final formatted files are also available in Adobe PDF® for your convenience. CH 2: NEUROSCIENCE AND BEHAVIOR CHAPTER PREVIEW Our nervous system plays a vital role in how we think, feel, and act. Neurons, the basic building blocks of the body’s circuitry, receive signals through their branching dendrites and cell bodies and transmit electrical impulses down their axons. Chemical messengers called neurotransmitters traverse the tiny synaptic gap between neurons and pass on excitatory or inhibitory messages. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of the somatic nervous system, which directs voluntary movements and reflexes, and the autonomic nervous system, which controls the glands and muscles of our internal organs. Hormones released by endocrine glands affect other tissues, including the brain. The most influential endocrine gland, the pituitary gland, releases hormones that influence growth, and its secretions also influence the release of hormones by other glands. The nervous system directs endocrine secretions, which then affect the nervous system. Evolution has elaborated new brain systems on top of old. Within the brainstem are the oldest regions, the medulla and the reticular formation. The thalamus sits atop the brainstem and the cerebellum extends from the rear. The limbic system includes the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the hypothalamus. The cerebral cortex, representing the highest level of brain development, is responsible for our most complex functions. Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex has four geographical areas: the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. Although small, well-defined regions within these lobes control muscle movement and receive information from the body senses, most of the cortex—its association areas—are free to process other information. Experiments on split-brain patients suggest that, for most people, the left hemisphere is the more verbal and the right hemisphere excels in visual perception and the recognition of emotion. Studies of people with intact brains indicate that each hemisphere makes unique contributions to the integrated functions of the brain. CHAPTER GUIDE Lectures: Sources for Teaching Neuroscience and Behavior; Phrenology Introductory Exercise: Fact or Falsehood?
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1. Explain why psychologists are concerned with human biology, and describe the ill-fated phrenology theory. Everything psychological is simultaneously biological. We think, feel, and act with our bodies. By studying the links between biology and psychology, biological psychologists are gaining a better understanding of our experiences of sights and sounds, meanings and memories, pain and passion. In the 1800s, Franz Gall invented phrenology, a popular theory that claimed that bumps on the skull reveal our mental abilities and our character traits. Although bumps on the skull reveal nothing about the brain’s underlying functions,
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Ch2 - PLEASE NOTE: The Instructors Resources files lose...

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