This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Physiology Lessons
for use with the
Biopac Student Lab Lesson 12 New Procedure
PULMONARY FUNCTION I
Volumes and Capacities For Windows® 98SE, Me, 2000 Pro, XP
or Mac® OS X 10.3-10.4 Richard Pflanzer, Ph.D.
Indiana University School of Medicine
Purdue University School of Science J.C. Uyehara, Ph.D.
BIOPAC Systems, Inc. William McMullen
BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Manual Revision 3.7.1
11.03.2005 BIOPAC Systems, Inc.
42 Aero Camino, Goleta, CA 93117
(805) 685-0066, Fax (805) 685-0067
Web Site: http://www.biopac.com
© BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Page 2 Biopac Student Lab New Lesson Procedure
The Lesson 12 procedure was changed based on feedback from instructors. BSL 3.7.1-Windows (with
journal date 10/27/2005) and BSL 3.7.1-Mac incorporate an updated breathing procedure and new analysis
instructions to help students obtain accurate Tidal Volume values.
• OLD OVERVIEW: This recording shows normal breathing for 3 breaths, full inhale, return to normal
breathing, full exhale, then a return to normal breathing. • REVISED TO: This recording shows normal breathing for 5 breaths, full inhale, full exhale, then a
return to normal breathing. Segment 1 Guide:
• OLD: After the recording begins, Subject will do the following: Breathe normally for 3 breaths, then
inhale as deeply as possible, then return to normal breathing for 3 breaths. Next, breathe out
completely, then normally for 3 breaths. Recorder should click on the 'Stop' button when Subject is
finished. • REVISED TO: After the recording begins, Subject will do the following: Breathe normally for 5
breaths, then inhale as deeply as possible, then breathe out completely, then breath normally for 5
breaths. Recorder should click on the 'Stop' button when Subject is finished. Segment 2 Guide:
• OLD: Subject will breathe normally for 3 breaths, then inhale as deeply as possible, then return to
normal breathing for 3 breaths. Next, Subject will exhale completely, then breathe normally for 3
breaths. Keep the Airflow transducer upright at all times. When Subject is finished, Recorder should
click on 'Stop.' • REVISED TO: Subject will breathe normally for 5 breaths, then inhale as deeply as possible, then
exhale completely, then breathe normally for 5 breaths. Keep the Airflow transducer upright at all
times. When Subject is finished, Recorder should click on 'Stop.' Analysis
• Analysis revised to match recorded data. I. INTRODUCTION
The introductory text has not changed from the previously supplied lesson, but Fig. 12.2 was updated: Figure 12.2 Example of respiratory volumes and capacities
WWW.BIOPAC.COM Lesson 12: Pulmonary Function I Page 3 II. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
The objectives have not changed from the previously supplied lesson. III. MATERIALS
The materials have not changed from the previously supplied lesson. IV. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Key to Symbols
The symbols below are used to prompt you throughout Experimental Methods and Data Analysis.
If you encounter a problem or need further explanation of a concept, refer to the Orientation Chapter
for more details. ∇ The data collected in the associated step needs to be recorded in the Data Report (in the section indicated
by the alpha character). You can record the data individually by hand or choose Edit > Journal > Paste
measurements to paste data to your journal for future reference.
You need to manually insert an event marker and key in a label similar to the text in quotes. You
insert an event marker during acquisition by pressing “F9” and can insert or edit markers and labels
once acquisition is completed. Each section of this lesson is presented in a two-column format, as described below.
FAST TRACK STEPS
This side of the lesson (left, shaded
column) is the FAST TRACK through
the lesson, and contains a basic
explanation of each step. DETAILED EXPLANATION OF STEPS
This side of the lesson contains more detailed information to clarify the
steps and/or concepts in the FAST TRACK, and may include reference
diagrams, illustrations, and screen shots. A. SET UP
FAST TRACK SET UP DETAILED EXPLANATION OF SET UP 1. Turn your computer ON. The desktop should appear on the monitor. If it does not
2. Make sure the BIOPAC MP35/30 unit is appear, ask the laboratory instructor for assistance.
3. Plug the airflow transducer (SS11LA)
into Channel 1. BIOPAC MP3X unit 4. Turn on the MP35/30 Data Acquisition
Plugs into CH1 SS11LA
Airflow Transducer Fig. 12.3 Set Up continues
© BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Page 4 Biopac Student Lab 5. Place a filter onto the end of the
calibration syringe. The filter is required for calibration and recording because it forces
the air to move smoothly through the transducer. This assembly can
be left connected for future use. You only need to replace the filter if
the paper inside the filter tears.
The bacteriological filter must be used between the transducer and
calibration syringe in order for the data to be accurate. 6. Insert the Calibration Syringe/Filter
Assembly into the airflow transducer
Always insert on the
side labeled “Inlet”
Fig. 12.4 If using SS11LA transducer with removable, cleanable head, always
insert syringe assembly on the transducer side labeled “Inlet” so that
the transducer cable exits on the left, as shown in Fig. 12.4.
• If using SS11L transducer with non-removable head, insert
syringe assembly into the larger diameter port. IMPORTANT: If your lab sterilizes the airflow heads after each use,
make sure a clean head is installed now.
7. Start the Biopac Student Lab program.
8. Choose Lesson 12 (L12-LUNG-1).
9. Type in your filename.
10. Click OK. Use a unique identifier.
This ends the Set Up procedure. END OF SET UP WWW.BIOPAC.COM Lesson 12: Pulmonary Function I Page 5 B. CALIBRATION
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware’s internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling) and is
critical for optimum performance. Pay close attention to the entire calibration procedure.
FAST TRACK Calibration
1. Pull the Calibration Syringe Plunger all
the way out and hold the Calibration
Syringe/Filter Assembly upright (Fig.
NOTE: If you have previously
calibrated the SS11LA Airflow
Transducer for Lesson 12 or 13, and
have not exited the BSL software or
changed the transducer, BSL has
saved the prior calibration data.
- Go to Step 1 of the Recording
Data section of this lesson if
you wish to begin recording data.
- Click Redo Calibration if you
wish to recalibrate the transducer. DETAILED EXPLANATION OF CALIBRATION STEPS
The Airflow Transducer is sensitive to gravity so it needs to be held
upright throughout the calibration and recording.
Airflow Transducer hangs
freely off the end Airflow transducer
held upright at all times Calibration Syringe Plunger Correct placement of hands
Fig. 12.5 IMPORTANT: Never hold onto the airflow transducer handle when
using the calibration syringe or the syringe tip may break.
2. Click Calibrate. The first calibration procedure stage will run for 8 seconds and end
with an alert box.
IMPORTANT: Leave the plunger extended and hold the assembly
steady and upright during the entire calibration procedure. Do not
touch the plunger because any pressure at this stage will cause
inaccurate results. 3. Prepare for the second calibration
stage. Stage 1 of the calibration procedure ends with an alert box asking if
you have read the directions in the journal. Read the directions in Step
5 and/or the journal so that, once the second calibration procedure
starts, you understand the procedures. 4. Click Yes after reading the alert box. Do not click on the Yes button until you are completely ready to
proceed. When you click Yes, the second stage of the calibration
procedure will begin, and will run until you click End Calibration. 5. Cycle the syringe plunger in and out
completely 5 times (10 strokes). Hold the syringe assembly as shown in Fig. 12.5 above. 6. Click End Calibration. Use a rhythm of about 1 second per stroke with 2 seconds rest between
strokes, i.e., push the plunger in for approximately 1 second, wait 2
seconds, pull the plunger out, wait 2 seconds, and repeat 4 more times.
Click End Calibration when done.
Note: The calibration procedure is required because of the complexity
of the Airflow to Volume calculation. The accuracy of this conversion
is aided by analyzing the airflow variations occurring over five
complete cycles of the calibration syringe. Additional cycles would
also help, but only with diminishing return rates. Five cycles turns out
to be an adequate number of cycles for accurate calibration. Calibration continues… © BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Page 6 Biopac Student Lab 7. Check your calibration data. At the end of the calibration recording, your screen should resemble
Fig. 12.6. Figure 12.6 If correct, go to the Data
Recording section. If your data shows 5 downward deflections and 5 upward deflections,
you may proceed to the Data Recording section. If incorrect, Redo Calibration. If the data shows any large spikes, then you must redo calibration by
clicking Redo Calibration and repeating the entire calibration
sequence. END OF CALIBRATION WWW.BIOPAC.COM Lesson 12: Pulmonary Function I Page 7 C. RECORDING LESSON DATA
FAST TRACK Recording DETAILED EXPLANATION OF RECORDING STEPS 1. OPTIONAL: Validate Calibration:
a) Click Record.
b) Cycle the AFT6 syringe plunger in
and out completely 5 times (10
c) Click Stop.
d) Measure P-P on CH2 Volume to
confirm the result is 0.6 liters
e) Click Redo and proceed with
Subject recording (or click Done
and repeat calibration if
2. Prepare for the recording.
Subject must be relaxed to
obtain accurate measures. Figure 12.7 Calibration Validation shows P-P result 0.6 liters In order to work efficiently, read this entire section so you will know
what to do for each recording segment.
Following the procedure precisely is very important, as the
calculation from airflow to volume is very sensitive.
Subject should be seated, facing away from the computer monitor,
relaxed, with eyes closed while you review the lesson.
Check the last line of the journal and note the total amount of
time available for the recording. Stop each recording segment as soon
as possible so you don’t use an excessive amount of time (time is
Note: Residual Volume (RV) cannot be determined using a
normal spirometer or airflow transducer, so the Biopac Student Lab
software uses a default of 1 Liter. If 1 Liter of RV is not desired, see
your Instructor to change the Preference.
Hints for obtaining optimal data:
a) Subject should be seated, facing away from the computer
monitor, relaxed, with eyes closed.
b) Subject should insert mouthpiece and begin breathing normally
BEFORE the recording is started since the mouthpiece may
influence normal values.
c) Always insert on and breathe through the transducer side labeled
d) Keep the Airflow Transducer upright at all times (Fig. 12.11).
e) A breath is considered a complete inhale-exhale cycle. If you
start the recording on an inhale, try to end on an exhale, and viceversa. This is not absolutely critical, but does increase the
accuracy of the Airflow to Volume calculation. Recording continues…
© BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Page 8 Biopac Student Lab IMPORTANT: If your lab sterilizes the airflow heads after each use,
3. Insert a clean mouthpiece (and filter if
applicable) into the airflow transducer as make sure a clean head is installed now.
Have the Subject personally remove the filter and mouthpiece from the
plastic packaging. This mouthpiece will become the Subject’s personal
mouthpiece. It is advisable to write the Subject’s name on the
To be safe, follow this procedure
mouthpiece and filter with a permanent marker so they can be reused
precisely to make sure the airflow
transducer is sterile.
If using the SS11LA transducer and
sterilizing the head after each use: If using SS11LA transducer and sterilizing the head after each use,
insert a disposable mouthpiece (BIOPAC AFT2) or an autoclavable
mouthpiece (BIOPAC AFT8) into the airflow transducer on the side
labeled “Inlet.” IMPORTANT!
Always insert on the
side labeled “Inlet” Fig. 12.8 SS11LA with sterilized head If using the SS11LA transducer and
not sterilizing the head after each
use: If using SS11LA transducer and not sterilizing the head after each
use, insert a filter and mouthpiece into the airflow transducer on the
side labeled “Inlet.” IMPORTANT!
Always insert on the
side labeled “Inlet” Fig. 12.9 SS11LA with unsterilized head If using the SS11L:
4. Subject should place his/her personal
nose clip on nose. If using SS11L transducer with non-removable head, insert a new
filter and mouthpiece into the larger diameter port. Disposable
Fig. 12.10 SS11L
WWW.BIOPAC.COM Lesson 12: Pulmonary Function I
5. Breathe normally for 20 seconds
through the Airflow Transducer
BEFORE clicking Record. Page 9
A breath is considered a complete inhale-exhale cycle. Subject
should be relaxed with eyes closed for “normal breathing.” Allow time
for Subject to acclimate to the mouthpiece BEFORE clicking Record. IMPORTANT!
Subject must remain relaxed
and always breathe through
the side labeled “Inlet” 6. Click Record.
a) Breathe normally for 5 breaths.
b) Inhale as deeply as you can.
c) Exhale as deeply as you can.
d) Breathe normally for 5 breaths. 7. Click Stop. Fig. 12.11 Keep the Airflow Transducer upright at all times
For accurate measures, the Subject must be completely relaxed, with
eyes closed, and breathing normally. The mouthpiece will influence the
Subject’s breathing, so allow time for the Subject to acclimate to the
mouthpiece BEFORE clicking Record.
• A breath is considered a complete inhale-exhale cycle.
Subject should be relaxed with eyes closed and not facing the
• If you start the recording on an inhale, try to end on an exhale,
As soon as the Stop button is pressed, the Biopac Student Lab software
will automatically calculate volume data based on the recorded airflow
data. At the end of the calculation, both waveforms will be displayed on
the screen (Fig. 12.12). 8. Review the data on the screen.
If correct, go to Step 7. Fig. Fig. 12.12 Your data should resemble Fig.12.12, showing a positive spike for
inhalation and a negative spike for exhalation.
If incorrect, click Redo. Recording continues… The data would be incorrect if you feel you didn’t follow the procedure
precisely, i.e. you coughed or air escaped.
In this case, you should redo the recording by clicking Redo and
repeating Steps 5-8. Note that once you press Redo, the data you have
just recorded will be erased.
© BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Page 10 Biopac Student Lab 9. Click Done. After you press Done, your data will automatically be saved in the
specified “Data Files” folder. A pop-up window with options will
appear. Make your choice, and continue as directed.
If choosing the “Record from another Subject” option:
a) You will not need to recalibrate the airflow transducer. For this
reason, we recommend that all recordings be completed before
you proceed to Data Analysis.
b) Remember to have each person use his/her own mouthpiece,
bacterial filter and nose clip.
c) Repeat Recording Steps 1-7 for each new Subject.
d) Each person will need to use a unique file name. END OF RECORDING WWW.BIOPAC.COM Lesson 12: Pulmonary Function I V. Page 11 DATA ANALYSIS
FAST TRACK Data Analysis 1. Enter the Review Saved Data mode and
choose the correct file. DETAILED EXPLANATION OF DATA ANALYSIS STEPS
Enter the Review Saved Data mode. Note channel number (CH) designations:
Channel Displays CH 1 Airflow CH 2 Volume Fig. 12.13 Note: Airflow (Channel 1) and Volume (Channel 2) data are shown
simultaneously. First, concentrate on the Volume data.
2. Turn OFF Channel 1, Airflow. Optional: Review Airflow data before
turning Channel 1 off. 3. Set up the measurement boxes as
follows: To toggle a channel ON/OFF, click on the channel number box
and hold down the “Ctrl” key.
The Airflow data does not have a lot of meaning for this lesson and
may confusing at first glance, but it contains an interesting perspective
on the recording. Note that the vertical scale of the airflow waveform
is in Liters per second (Liters/sec.), and that the data is centered on
zero. Looking at the graph, you can see that with each exhale, a
downward pointing curve appears. The deeper an inhale, the larger the
positive peak; the more forceful an exhale, the larger the negative
The measurement boxes are above the marker region in the data
window. Each measurement has three sections: channel number,
measurement type, and result. The first two sections are pull-down
menus that are activated when you click on them. The following is a Channel Measurement CH 2 P-P CH 2 Max CH 2 Min P-P: finds the maximum value in the selected area and subtracts
the minimum value found in the selected area. CH 2 Delta Max: displays the maximum value in the selected area. brief description of these specific measurements. Min: displays the minimum value in the selected area.
Delta: computes the difference in amplitude between the last point
and the first point of the selected area.
The “selected area” is the area selected by the I-Beam tool (including
Data Analysis continues… © BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Page 12 Biopac Student Lab 4. Review the measurements described in
the Introduction to identify the
appropriate selected area for each:
• Total Lung Capacity
• Tidal Volume
• Inspiratory Reserve Volume
• Expiratory Reserve Volume
• Vital Capacity
• Expiratory Capacity
• Inspiratory Capacity
• Functional residual Capacity
• Residual Volume
Fig. 12.14 Measurement areas for respiratory volumes and capacities 5. Measure observed VC (P-P). The P-P measurement can be used to obtain VC (Fig. 12.15). A Figure 12.15 Example of VC from P-P measure 6. Take two measures for an averaged TV
calculation: The P-P measurement in Fig. 12.16 represents the first value
required for the averaged TV calculation. a) Use the I-beam cursor to select the
inhalation of cycle 3 and note the
P-P result (Fig. 12.16). The selected
area should be from the valley to
the peak of the third cycle. B Fig. 12.16 Inhalation of third breath cycle selected to measure P-P Data Analysis continues…
WWW.BIOPAC.COM Lesson 12: Pulmonary Function I Page 13 b) Use the I-beam cursor to select the The P-P measurement in Fig. 12.17 represents the second value
exhalation of cycle 3 and note the required for the averaged TV calculation.
P-P result (Fig. 12.17). The selected
area should be from the peak to the
valley of the third cycle. B Fig. 12.17 Exhalation of third breath cycle selected to measure P-P 7. Use the I-beam cursor and measurement The Delta measurement can be used to obtain IRV, ERV, and other
tools to observe the following volumes measurements (Fig. 12.18).
and capacities (defined in Fig. 12.14):
a) IRV (Delta)
b) ERV (Delta)
c) RV (Min)
d) IC (Delta)
e) EC (Delta)
f) TLC (Max) B
Fig. 12.18 Example of measurements for TLC (Max result),
RV (Min result), and IRV (Delta result)T 8. Save or Print the data file.
9. Exit the program. You may save the data to a drive, save notes that are in the
journal, or print the data file. END OF DATA ANALYSIS END OF LESSON 12
Complete the Lesson 12 Data Report that follows. © BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Biopac Student Lab Page 14 Lesson 12 PULMONARY FUNCTION I
Volumes and Capacities DATA REPORT
Date: Subject Profile
Name Height Age Weight Gender: Male / Female
I. Measurements A. Vital Capacity
i ) Predicted: Use the equation below to calculate your Predicted Vital Capacity: liters
A1 Equations for Predicted Vital Capacity
Male V.C. = 0.052H - 0.022A – 3.60 Female V.C. = 0.041H - 0.018A – 2.69 Where
A Vital Capacity in liters
Height in centimeters
Age in years ii) Observed: Use the P-P measurement result to note Observed Vital Capacity: liters
A2 iii) Observed vs. Predicted
What is the Subject’s observed Vital Capacity to predicted Vital Capacity as a percentage?
Observed VC /Predicted VC = A1/A2 = _________ liters x 100= __________ % Note: Vital capacities are dependent on other factors besides age and height. Therefore, 80% of
predicted values are still considered “normal.” Lesson 12: Pulmonary Function I Data Report Page 15 B. Volume & Capacity Measurements
Complete Table 12.2 with the requested measurement results and calculate results per the formulas provided.
Table 12.2 Measurements
Title Measurement Result Tidal Volume TV a = P-P Cycle 3 inhalation:
b = P-P Cycle 3 exhalation: Inspiratory Reserve Volume IRV
ERV (a + b) / 2 = Delta Expiratory Reserve Volume Calculation Delta Residual Volume RV Min Default = 1
(Preference setting) Inspiratory Capacity IC Delta TV + IRV = Expiratory Capacity EC Delta TV + ERV =
ERV + RV = Functional Residual Capacity FRC
Total Lung Capacity TLC Max IRV + TV + ERV + RV
= C. Observed vs. Predicted Volumes
Using data obtained for Table 12.2, compare the Subject’s lung volumes with the average volumes presented
in the Introduction.
Table 12.3 Average Volumes vs. Measured Volumes
Tidal Volume Inspiratory Reserve Volume Expiratory Reserve Volume Average Volume
TV IRV ERV Measured Volume Resting subject, normal breathing:
TV is approximately 500 ml.
TV can be more than 3 liters greater than Resting IRV for young adults is
males = approximately 3,300 ml
females = approximately 1,900 ml greater than Resting ERV for young adults is
males = approximately 1,000 ml
females = approximately 700 ml greater than © BIOPAC Systems, Inc. equal to
less than equal to
less than equal to
less than Page 16 Biopac Student Lab II. QUESTIONS
D. Why does predicted vital capacity vary with height? E. Explain how factors other than height might affect lung capacity. F. How would the volume measurements change if data were collected after vigorous exercise? G. What is the difference between volume measurements and capacities? H. Define Tidal Volume. I. Define Inspiratory Reserve Volume. J. Define Expiratory Reserve Volume. K. Define Respiratory Volume. L. Define Pulmonary Capacity. M. Name the Pulmonary Capacities. End of Lesson 12 Data Report WWW.BIOPAC.COM ...
View Full Document
- Fall '11