ECE_3820_lecture_3_2011

ECE_3820_lecture_3_2011 - Biomedical Engineering: Stem...

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Unformatted text preview: Biomedical Engineering: Stem Cells applications Zara Karabekian, PhD zkarabekian@yahoo.com Outline Why stem cells? Stem cells and development What are the characteristics of stem cells? What types of stem cells exist/differences? What are the current/potential applications of stem cells? What methods are used to culture stem cells? Why stem cells? What Is a Stem Cell? Human embryonic stem cell (gold) growing on a layer of supporting cells (fibroblasts). Stem Cells & Development Differentiation results in multipotent, unipotent & specialized cells Pluripotent stem cells Totipotent stem cells Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 IVF Research Development How big is a Blastocyst? Stem Cell Characteristics 1. Self-renewal: Numerous cell divisions in an undifferentiated state 2. Potency: Capacity to differentiate into multiple specialized cell types 1 2 1. Self-Renewal Small segments of DNA are normally lost during replication ie. Cardiomyocytes have limited cell division Stem cells have longer telomeres, and express telomerase 2. Potency What are the types of stem cells? Totipotent : Master cells , contain genetic information to create all cells of the body and placenta. Exist only in the first 3-4 cell divisions. Pluripotent/embryonic : Arise from totipotent cells. Create all cells of the body, but not extraembryonic tissue. Multipotent/adult : Arise from pluripotent cells. Produce a limited number of cell types, usually closely related. Unipotent/Progenitor : Stem cell that self-renews, but only creates one type of cell. S S Embryonic Stem cell Adult Stem cell TOTIPOTENT PLURIPOTENT MULTIPOTENT OLIGOPOTENT UNIPOTENT Function : Create all cell types for developing embryo Advantages : Immortal, cells can produce many cells and survive in culture 1+ year Relatively easy to isolate Pluripotent Any cell, except placenta Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT): no immune rejection Disadvantages : Immune rejection if cells from IVF Difficult to control, coaxing required *Teratoma* Embryonic Stem Cells Stem Cell Source: Somatic Cell Nuclear...
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ECE_3820_lecture_3_2011 - Biomedical Engineering: Stem...

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