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Webster_Ch4_Answers - initiated 4.4 A diagram of the lines...

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Answers for homework problems assigned from Chapter 4 of Webster. 4.1: a) ionic concentration gradients, b) electric field across the membrane, c) permeability for a specific ion species, d) active Na+ & K+ transport. 4.2: [K]i=0.095 mmol/l [Na]i=3.43 mmol/l [Cl]i=5072 mmol/l 4.3: case i: micropipette is the anode, extracellular electrode is the cathode, current flows outward through the membrane and membrane depolarizes. If depolarization is high enough then an action potential is initiated. case ii: micropipette is the cathode, extracellular electrode is the anode, current flows inward through the membrane and membrane hyperpolarizes. No action potential is
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Unformatted text preview: initiated. 4.4: A diagram of the lines of current flow between the external stimulating pair of electrodes is shown in Figure a (below). Current flows outward through the membrane under the cathode and inward through the membrane under the anode. Thus, membrane potential is depolarized under the cathode and hyperpolarized under the anode. The anodal and cathodal electrotonic potentials are shown in Figure b (below). These electronic potentials are recorded by positioning the exploring electrode in the immediate vicinity of the anode and then the cathode....
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