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Unformatted text preview: OUTLINE LINGUIST101 WHITE Elizabeth White Minta Elsman Discussion 2 March 22, 2011 Content: Organization: Mechanics: Total: 1. Outline 1.1. Introduction 1.1.1. Definition of language 22.214.171.124. What it consists of, etc. 1.1.2. Rico 126.96.36.199. Basic discussion of Rico findings 1.1.3. Chaser 188.8.131.52. Basic discussion of Chaser findings 1.1.4. Kanzi 184.108.40.206. Basic discussion of Kanzi findings 1.1.5. Thesis & Opinion 220.127.116.11. Border Collies learned some form of Human language in both studies (Chaser supported findings Rico) 18.104.22.168.1. Therefore, it is possible for both dogs to have “learned” a human language. 1.2. Body 1 1.2.1. How humans learn language (brief paragraph meant for background) 22.214.171.124. Children have a more diverse vocab, including names for specific people, properties, actions, and relations (Bloom) 126.96.36.199. Children’s word learning is robust, they can learn words from overheard speech, even if not trying to be taught (Bloom) 188.8.131.52. Children understand words in many contexts (Bloom) 184.108.40.206. Children incorporate about 10 new words per day until they reach an average vocab of 600,000 words by the end of HS (Kaminski) 220.127.116.11. Children have a set of operating principles that guide the task of word learning (Kaminski) 18.104.22.168. 2 elementary factors of referential understanding believed to be necessary to expedite rapid word learning by children: 22.214.171.124.1. Awareness that words may refer to objects 126.96.36.199.2. Awareness of social cues that enable the mapping of the words upon the referent (Pilley) 1.3. Body 2 OUTLINE LINGUIST101 WHITE 1.3.1. Discuss Kanzi & Language briefly (transition paragraph) 1.4. Body 3 1.4.1. Discuss Rico 188.8.131.52. Border collie born in 12/94 (Kaminski) 184.108.40.206. Lives domestically w/ owner and is reported to know the labels of 200 items (mostly children’s toys etc.) 220.127.116.11. First introduced to retrieving items at 10months 18.104.22.168.1. Gradually familiarized with an increasing number of items 22.214.171.124.1.1. Unclear whether he was learning or if it was a “Clever Hans” effect experiment 126.96.36.199. K a m i nski A r t i c le 188.8.131.52.1. Investigated the outer limits of a domestic dog’s “word learning” – the ability for Rico to acquire the relation between a word and the object that the word refers to 184.108.40.206.2. Specifically tested whether he would be able to infer the referent of a new word by fast mapping and retain the knowledge over time 220.127.116.11.3. First experiment designed to assess Rico’s ability to correctly retrieve various items under controlled conditions 18.104.22.168.3.1. Retrieved 37/40 22.214.171.124.3.1.1. Discuss Rico’s results as compared to other animals and humans 126.96.36.199.4. To asses ability to fast map, placed novel item with 7 familiar items 188.8.131.52.4.1. First session, owner asked for familiar item 184.108.40.206.4.2. Second/third session, owner asked for novel item 220.127.116.11.4.2.1. Correct 7/10 18.104.22.168.4.2.2. Able to link the novel word with the item based on exclusion 22.214.171.124.5. four weeks later, retested retention...
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