Botany - Botany Final Exam Review Taxonomy Describing,...

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Botany Final Exam Review Taxonomy – Describing, naming, classifying organs Linneaus invented Binomial system of nomenclature Genus Species Tradescantia virginiana Genus and Species written in italics or underlined. .first letter of genus capitalized. Ex. Homo sapiens, Prunus persica Taxonomist – studies and names organisms Systematists – Figure out evolutionary relationship 1969 Classification: Animalia Plantae Protista Fungi Bacteria Archea - Based mostly on genetic characteristics Now organized into 3 domain system = Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Eukarya contains Animals, Fungi, Plants, Protista - 15 million different species exist today, 25% will be extinct by the end of our lifetime. - 10% of 15 million species have been named - 1.5 billion have evolved, 99% have become extinct Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations Cells = Somatic or Reproductive Diploid – Cell with two sets of DNA Haploid – Typical reproductive cell with one set of DNA Sperm and egg cells are also called Gametes Mitosis – One cell divides and makes two new cells 1n (Haploid) 1n cell, 1n cell (or) 2n (Diploid) 2n cell, 2n cell Meiosis – 4 daughter cells all different from eachother and different from parent cell. When one diploid cell divided and creates four haploids called Spores 2n cell 1n cell, 1n cell, 1n cell, 1n cell Spore – Haploid cell produced by meiosis Sporophyte – A multi-cellular diploid plant that makes spores
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Spores divide by mitosis and produce haploid organisms called gametophytes Sporophyte (2n) Spore (1n) Divides by mitosis Multicellular 1n Gametophyte Male Gametophyte = Pollen Female Gametophyte = Embryo Sac -Plants gametes are made from haploid cells by mitosis – unlike animals where gametes are made directly from diploid cells by meiosis How does a plant make a plant? Male Gametophyte (Multicellular 1n Haploid) Spores (Single cell 1n Haploid) Female Gametophyte (Multicellular 1n Haploid) Sperm (Single cell 1n haploid) Zygote (Single cell 2n diploid) Plant (Multicellular 2n Diploid) Egg (Single cell 1n haploid) - Both diploid + haploid phases are Multi-cellular Plant Diversity Seedless Non-vascular Plants - Modern land plants probably evolved from ancient alga. Non Vascular - Bryophytes (Require water for reproduction, Seedless, Dominant Gametophyte) -Mosses -Liverworts -Hornworts Vascular Ferns and Fern allies Don’t make seeds, have vascular tissue, sporophyte dominant, makes spores from sporangia. Spores (1n) grows into multicellular (1n) gametophyte. Gametophyte makes sperm and egg which meet and form “zygote”, which divides and grows into a sporophyte (2n) Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Both vascular, dominant sporophyte generation, reproduce and disperse by seeds Seed – Dispersal unit containing embryonic sporophyte (baby plant) with very little food reserves.
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Embryo (Baby Plant inside seed) Adult Plant Diploid Sporophyte Meiosis into Haploid Spores Male = Pollen, Female = Embryo Sac
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course GLG 111 taught by Professor Kuentz during the Fall '05 term at Miami University.

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Botany - Botany Final Exam Review Taxonomy Describing,...

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