GLG (2) - Rocks and Minerals Atoms (proton, neutron,...

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Rocks and Minerals Atoms (proton, neutron, electron) Elements (specific atoms(Hydrogen) Compounds (H2O, SiO2, NaCl) Minerals (Quartz is SiO2, Halite or Salt is NaCl) Rocks (Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic): Rocks are a combination of several minerals The 5 part definition of a mineral Naturally occurring: not synthetic Inorganic: not alive, never was Solid: not liquid or gas Specific chemical composition or range of compositions: NaCl, FeS 2 , (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 Regular internal atomic arrangement (crystalline structure): constituent atoms/ions are symmetrically arranged in a three-dimensional lattice with a specific shape Halite (NaCl) has a cubic crystal structure. The “stick-ball” figure (left) shows details, but the figure on the right shows the way in which the ions are “packed” together in halite. Mineral Physical Properties Color: can be misleading (impurities, lattice vacancies) Hardness: related to bond strength Density (mass/volume): atomic weight of constituent atoms and closeness of packing Shape: based on the crystal structure Cleavage and Fracture: related to directional differences in bond strengths Luster: how the surface reflects light Streak: color of the mineral when powdered Reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid: solubility Others: Taste, Appearance in UV light, Magnetism, etc Silica and related words Silicon: the 14 th element of the Periodic Table, or synthetic masses of pure silicon used to make computer chips Silicone: synthetic material in which carbon atoms are bonded to silicon atoms to make long chains (polymers) that produce a material useful as a lubricant or sealant Silica: a combination of the elements silicon and oxygen found in minerals (SiO 4 ) Common Rock Forming Minerals Feldspars : Na, Ca, K, Al, silica Quartz : SiO 2 Pyroxenes : Ca, Mg, Fe, silica Amphiboles : Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, silica, water Micas : K, Al, silica, water (+/- Na, Ca, Mg, Fe) Clay Minerals : Al, silica, water (+/- K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe) Olivine : Mg, Fe, silica Calcite : CaCO 3 Dolomite : CaMg(CO 3 ) 2
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Rocks Rock: a solid, cohesive aggregate of minerals or mineral-like materials. Three basic types: Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic. All rocks contain information regarding their formation. The Rock Cycle: All rocks 'participate'. Igneous Rocks Comprise 95% of the earth’s outermost 100 km. Igneous rocks form from the solidification of molten rock. Magma: molten rock + crystals + volatiles (gases + liquids) Magma temperatures = 600ºC to 1200ºC (1150º to 2200º F) Lava: Fluid molten rock that issues from a volcano or fissure. Also contains crystals and volatiles. Pyroclastics:
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course GLG 111 taught by Professor Kuentz during the Fall '05 term at Miami University.

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GLG (2) - Rocks and Minerals Atoms (proton, neutron,...

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