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Fall2010-Week2-EMR-Concepts and Foundations

Fall2010-Week2-EMR-Concepts and Foundations - GIS4037 and...

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GIS4037 and GIS5038: Environmental Remote Sensing Lecture 2: A whirlwind tour of Physics 101…. all you’ll need to know for this class – don’t freak out!
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This course:
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Electromagnetic energy is the means by which information is transmitted from an object (target) to a sensor. While most of us are familiar with the visible form of electromagnetic energy, it exists in many forms besides visible light. Among these are: radio waves microwaves heat ultraviolet rays X-rays gamma rays Each of these describes the energy in a specific region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum represents the continuum of electromagnetic energy from extremely short wavelengths (cosmic and gamma rays) to extremely long wavelengths (radio and television waves).
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Electromagnetic Spectrum Ultraviolet (UV) Visible (Red = 0.6 - 0.7 m m, Green = 0.5 - 0.6 , Blue = 0.4 - 0.5) IR (reflected vs. thermal) Microwave (RADAR) Wavelength vs. Energy Q = hc / l ( h=Planck’s constant, c=speed of light ) The longer the wavelength, the lower its energy content
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Electromagnetic waves are radiated through space from some source. When the energy encounters an object, even a very tiny one like a molecule of air, one of three reactions occurs. The radiation will be: (1) reflected off the object, (2) absorbed by the object, or (3) transmitted through the object. The total amount of radiation that strikes an object is referred to as the incident radiation, and is equal to: reflected radiation + absorbed radiation + transmitted radiation E i = E R + E A + E T
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6 Electromagnetic Energy Interactions Energy recorded by remote sensing systems undergoes fundamental interactions that should be understood to properly interpret the remotely sensed data. For example, if the energy being remotely sensed comes from the Sun, the energy: • is radiated by atomic particles at the source (the Sun), • propagates through the vacuum of space at the speed of light, • interacts with the Earth's atmosphere, • interacts with the Earth's surface, • interacts with the Earth's atmosphere once again, and • finally reaches the remote sensor where it interacts with various optical systems, filters, emulsions, or detectors.
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Electromagnetic Spectrum of Radiant Energy Short Wavelength High Frequency High Energy Long Wavelength Low Frequency Low Energy
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8 Fundamental Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation Energy is the ability to do work. In the process of doing work, energy is often transferred from one body to another or from one place to another. The three basic ways in which energy can be transferred include, conduction , convection , and radiation . • Most people are familiar with conduction which occurs when one body (molecule or atom) transfers its kinetic energy to another by colliding with it. This is how a pan gets heated on a stove.
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