Psychology study guide ch.1 - Chapter 1 Introducing...

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Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology and Research Methods What Is Psychology? Psychology Psyche: Mind Logos: Knowledge or study Definition: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior: Overt; i. e. , can be directly observed (crying) Mental Processes: Covert; i. e. , cannot be directly observed (remembering) Empiricism: The Goals To measure and describe behaviors To gather empirical evidence: information gained from direct observation and measurement To gather data: Observed facts To use scientific observation: Empirical investigation that is structured so that it answers questions about the world What Topics Do Psychologists Research? Development: Course of human growth and development Learning: How and why it occurs in humans and animals Personality: Traits, motivations, and individual differences What Topics Do Psychologists Research?(Continued) Sensation and Perception:
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How we come to know the world through our five senses Comparative Psychology: Behavior of different species Biopsychology: How behavior is related to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system What Might a Psychologist Research? (Continued) Cognition: How people think Gender: Study differences between males and females and how they develop Social Psychology: Human social behavior What Might a Psychologist Research? (Continued) Cultural Psychology : How culture affects human behavior Evolution: How our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved Forensics: How to apply psychological principles to legal issues What Are the Goals of Psychology? Description of Behaviors: Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors
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Understanding: The causes of behavior Prediction: Forecasting behavior accurately Control: Altering conditions that affect behaviors Critical Thinking Ability to analyze, evaluate, critique, and synthesize information What would you expect to see if the claim were true? Gather evidence relevant to the claim Evaluate the evidence Draw a conclusion Oftentimes used in research Four Basic Principles of Critical Thinking Few truths transcend the need for empirical testing Judging the quality of evidence is crucial Authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make an idea true Critical thinking requires an open mind Pseudopsychologies Pseudo means “false”; any unfounded “system” that resembles psychology and is NOT based on scientific testing
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Phrenology: Personality traits revealed by shape of skull and bumps on your head Palmistry: Lines on your hands (palms) predict future and reveal personality Graphology: Personality revealed by your handwriting Astrology: The positions of the stars and planets at birth determine your personality and affect your behavior Uncritical Acceptance:
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