Psychology study guide ch.1

Psychology study guide ch.1 - Chapter 1 Introducing...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology and Research Methods What Is Psychology? • Psychology – Psyche: Mind – Logos: Knowledge or study • Definition: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes – Behavior: Overt; i. e. , can be directly observed (crying) – Mental Processes: Covert; i. e. , cannot be directly observed (remembering) Empiricism: The Goals • To measure and describe behaviors • To gather empirical evidence: information gained from direct observation and measurement • To gather data: Observed facts • To use scientific observation: Empirical investigation that is structured so that it answers questions about the world What Topics Do Psychologists Research? • Development: – Course of human growth and development • Learning: – How and why it occurs in humans and animals • Personality: – Traits, motivations, and individual differences What Topics Do Psychologists Research?(Continued) • Sensation and Perception: – How we come to know the world through our five senses • Comparative Psychology: – Behavior of different species • Biopsychology: – How behavior is related to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system What Might a Psychologist Research? (Continued) • Cognition: – How people think • Gender: – Study differences between males and females and how they develop • Social Psychology: – Human social behavior What Might a Psychologist Research? (Continued) • Cultural Psychology : – How culture affects human behavior • Evolution: – How our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved • Forensics: – How to apply psychological principles to legal issues What Are the Goals of Psychology? • Description of Behaviors: – Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors • Understanding: – The causes of behavior • Prediction: – Forecasting behavior accurately • Control: – Altering conditions that affect behaviors Critical Thinking • Ability to analyze, evaluate, critique, and synthesize information – What would you expect to see if the claim were true? – Gather evidence relevant to the claim – Evaluate the evidence – Draw a conclusion • Oftentimes used in research Four Basic Principles of Critical Thinking • Few truths transcend the need for empirical testing • Judging the quality of evidence is crucial • Authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make an idea true • Critical thinking requires an open mind Pseudopsychologies • Pseudo means “false”; any unfounded “system” that resembles psychology and is NOT based on scientific testing – Phrenology: • Personality traits revealed by shape of skull and bumps on your head – Palmistry: • Lines on your hands (palms) predict future and reveal personality • Graphology: – Personality revealed by your handwriting • Astrology: – The positions of the stars and planets at birth determine your personality and affect your behavior...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course PHS 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Moraine Valley Community College.

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Psychology study guide ch.1 - Chapter 1 Introducing...

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