E-Diss389_thesis.doc - Drawing Conclusions An imagological...

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Unformatted text preview: Drawing Conclusions: An imagological survey of Britain and the British and Germany and the Germans in German and British cartoons and caricatures, 1945-2000 von Lachlan R. Moyle Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors der Philosophie angenommen von dem Fachbereich Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft Universität Osnabrück Hauptberichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Harald Husemann Mitberichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Colin Seymour-Ure 2004 On Satire Satyr is a sort of Glass, wherein Beholders do generally discover everybody’s Face but their own; which is the chief Reason for that kind of Reception it meets in the World, and that so very few are offended with it. But if it should happen otherwise, the Danger is not great; and I have learned from long Experience never to apprehend Mischief from those Understandings I have been able to provoke. ‘The Preface of the Author’ in Jonathan Swift, The Battel of the Books (London, [1697] 1704) And Symbols Heil dem Geist, der uns verbinden mag; Denn wir leben wahrhaft in Figuren. Und mit kleinen Schritten gehn die Uhren neben unserm eigentlichen Tag. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926), Sonette an Orpheus, XII: erster Teil (1922) --‘Using other people to think with’; that is, using them as symbols for points on your map, values in your scheme of things. When you get used to imposing meanings in this way, you silence the stranger’s account of who they are; and that can mean both metaphorical and literal death. Death as the undermining of a culture, language or faith and, at the extreme, the death of tyranny and genocide. [...] The collective imagination needs the outsider to give itself definition - which commonly means that it needs somewhere to project its own fears and tensions. [...] Living realities are turned into symbols, and the symbolic values are used to imprison the reality. At its extreme pitch, people simply relate to the symbols. It is too hard to look past them, to look into the complex humanity of a real other. Rowan Williams, Writing in the Dust (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2002), pp. 67-68 CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS----------------------------------------------------------------------------- I ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT-------------------------------------------------------III 0 INTRODUCTION-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 0.1 Aim----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 0.2 Hypothesis and analytical approach-------------------------------------------------------2 0.3 Textual focus------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2 0.3.1 Limitations----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 0.4 Sources of material---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 0.5 The sample-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 0.6 Context of research---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 0.7 Form and language usage--------------------------------------------------------------------7 1 IMAGOLOGY – CONCEPTS AND APPROACH-----------------------------------------9 1.0 Introduction------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9 1.1 Image Studies---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 1.2 The imagological approach---------------------------------------------------------------- 10 1.3 Imagological concepts and their definitions--------------------------------------------12 1.3.1 Stereotype---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 1.3.1.1 Development of stereotype theory-------------------------------------------------13 1.3.1.2 Towards a contemporary definition of ‘stereotype’-----------------------------15 1.3.1.3 In- and out-groups: hetero- and autostereotypes---------------------------------16 1.3.1.4 National stereotypes----------------------------------------------------------------- 18 1.3.1.5 A working definition----------------------------------------------------------------20 1.3.2 Prejudice------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21 1.3.3 Clichés-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23 1.3.4 The image of the enemy / Feindbild----------------------------------------------------24 1.3.5 Image---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 1.4 Rhetorical and aesthetic considerations-------------------------------------------------26 1.5 In conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28 2 CARTOONS AND CARICATURE-------------------------------------------------------29 2.0 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 2.1 Definitions and typology-------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 2.1.1 Caricature----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 2.1.2 Cartoon-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 33 2.1.3 Cartoon typology-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34 2.2 Historical survey----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35 2.2.1 Preparing the ground---------------------------------------------------------------------- 36 2.2.2 The invention of portrait caricature-----------------------------------------------------37 2.2.3 The birth of the cartoon------------------------------------------------------------------- 38 2.2.4 ‘The Golden Age’ in Britain--------------------------------------------------------------38 2.2.5 L'âge d'or in France----------------------------------------------------------------------- 40 2.2.6 Punch and the Victorian Age-------------------------------------------------------------41 2.2.7 The development of cartooning in Germany-------------------------------------------43 2.2.8 From the First to the Second World War------------------------------------------------45 2.2.9 German cartooning since 1945-----------------------------------------------------------47 2.2.10 British cartooning since 1945------------------------------------------------------------48 2.2.11 In conclusion------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 2.3 The nature of cartoons and caricature---------------------------------------------------51 2.3.1 Image power: psychological impact-----------------------------------------------------51 2.3.2 Relation to reality and truth--------------------------------------------------------------52 2.3.3 Cartoons as rhetoric----------------------------------------------------------------------- 53 2.3.4 Use of symbolism-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 55 2.4 The function of cartoons and caricature as identified by commentators and cartoonists------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 2.4.1 Entertainment------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 57 2.4.2 In-group service---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 58 2.4.3 Social and political criticism-------------------------------------------------------------59 2.4.4 Watchdogs of democracy and public morality-----------------------------------------61 2.4.5 Informing and educating------------------------------------------------------------------62 2.5 The cartoonist’s influence------------------------------------------------------------------63 2.5.1 Evidence of history------------------------------------------------------------------------ 63 2.5.2 Creating images and sustaining myths--------------------------------------------------64 2.5.3 Shaping opinions-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 65 2.5.4 Reflecting and reinforcing----------------------------------------------------------------67 2.5.5 In the medium------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 68 2.6 Boundaries------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 71 2.6.1 Libel, ethics, and taste--------------------------------------------------------------------- 71 2.6.2 Offensive behaviour----------------------------------------------------------------------- 72 2.6.3 Newspaper parameters-------------------------------------------------------------------- 73 2.6.4 Publish or perish--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74 2.7 Cartoons and print media------------------------------------------------------------------ 74 2.7.1 The British press in profile---------------------------------------------------------------75 2.7.2 The German press in profile--------------------------------------------------------------76 2.7.3 The press cartoonist’s job-----------------------------------------------------------------78 2.7.4 Editorial input------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 79 2.7.5 Part of the press package----------------------------------------------------------------- 80 2.8 Stereotypes, cartoons and the media-----------------------------------------------------81 2.8.1 National stereotypes and cartoons-------------------------------------------------------82 2.8.2 ‘The cherished community’--------------------------------------------------------------83 2.9 3 In conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 84 THE IMAGE OF GERMANY AND THE GERMANS IN BRITISH CARTOONS AND CARICATURE FROM 1945-----------------------------------------------------------87 3.0 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 87 3.1 Historical overview: The cartoon image of Germany and the Germans to 1945- 88 3.2 German stereotype content in British cartoons since 1945--------------------------95 3.2.1 General stereotypes: The adult, child, and family-------------------------------------96 3.2.1.1 The man------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 96 3.2.1.2 The woman--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 99 3.2.1.3 The child and family---------------------------------------------------------------100 3.2.2 The businessman------------------------------------------------------------------------- 101 3.2.3 The soldier/officer------------------------------------------------------------------------ 102 3.2.4 The (neo-)Nazi--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 103 3.2.5 Locomotion------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 103 3.2.6 Humour, food, and leisure---------------------------------------------------------------104 3.2.7 Housing and geography----------------------------------------------------------------- 106 3.2.8 Auto- and heterostereotype content----------------------------------------------------107 3.2.9 Humorous and harmless, or serious and seditious?----------------------------------110 3.2.10 Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 112 3.3 Symbols--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 113 3.3.1 Allegorical human figures---------------------------------------------------------------113 3.3.1.1 Germania---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 114 3.3.1.2 The Bavarian------------------------------------------------------------------------ 117 3.3.2 Historical figures------------------------------------------------------------------------- 120 3.3.2.1 Adolf Hitler------------------------------------------------------------------------- 121 3.3.2.2 Helmut Kohl------------------------------------------------------------------------ 123 3.3.3 Military symbolism---------------------------------------------------------------------- 126 3.3.3.1 The Prussian officer----------------------------------------------------------------126 3.3.3.2 The simple soldier------------------------------------------------------------------128 3.3.3.3 The spiked helmet------------------------------------------------------------------ 129 3.3.3.4 The Iron Cross----------------------------------------------------------------------131 3.3.3.5 The Panzer (tank)------------------------------------------------------------------ 133 3.3.4 Allegorical and animal figures---------------------------------------------------------135 3.3.4.1 The eagle---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 135 3.3.4.2 The Dachshund--------------------------------------------------------------------- 136 3.3.5 Monuments-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 138 3.3.5.1 3.3.6 The Berlin Wall---------------------------------------------------------------------138 Emblems---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 139 3.3.6.1 National colours and the flag-----------------------------------------------------139 3.3.6.2 The swastika------------------------------------------------------------------------ 140 3.3.6.3 The deutschmark------------------------------------------------------------------- 142 3.3.7 Symbolic phrases------------------------------------------------------------------------- 144 3.3.7.1 Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles-------------------------------------------144 3.3.7.2 Vorsprung durch Technik----------------------------------------------------------145 3.3.8 The beach towel-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 146 3.3.9 Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 148 3.4 Principal cartoon themes------------------------------------------------------------------ 149 3.4.1 Rearmament------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 149 3.4.2 Neo-Naziism------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 151 3.4.3 The military presence--------------------------------------------------------------------152 3.4.4 German national character: the Ridley-Chequers affair-----------------------------154 3.4.5 The Unification of East and West Germany------------------------------------------155 3.4.6 Deutschmark versus sterling: re- and devaluation-----------------------------------157 3.4.7 European issues: the BSE crisis and Monetary Union-------------------------------158 3.4.8 Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 160 3.5 ‘Once a German – Always a German!’ : In summary-------------------------------161 4 THE IMAGE OF BRITAIN AND THE BRITISH IN GERMAN CARTOONS AND CARICATURE SINCE 1945---------------------------------------------------------------- 165 4.0 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 165 4.1 Historical overview: The cartoon image of Britain and the British to 1945-----168 4.2 British stereotype content in German cartoons since 1945-------------------------175 4.2.1 General stereotypes----------------------------------------------------------------------175 4.2.1.1 The Englishman or ‘Britisher’----------------------------------------------------175 4.2.1.1.1 The umbrella-------------------------------------------------------------------- 177 4.2.1.1.2 The newspaper------------------------------------------------------------------177 4.2.1.1.3 The bowler hat------------------------------------------------------------------178 4.2.1.2 The woman-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 180 4.2.2 Members of Parliament and Civil Servants-------------------------------------------181 4.2.3 The businessman------------------------------------------------------------------------- 181 4.2.4 The aristocrat----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 182 4.2.5 The officer/soldier------------------------------------------------------------------------ 183 4.2.6 The bobby--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 184 4.2.7 The Scott---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 185 4.2.8 Locomotion------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 185 4.2.9 The press---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 186 4.2.10 Food, drink, leisure, and social behaviour--------------------------------------------187 4.2.11 Architecture, geography, and climate--------------------------------------------------188 4.2.12 Auto- and heterostereotype content----------------------------------------------------188 4.2.12.1 Deutscher Michel------------------------------------------------------------------190 4.2.12.2 ‘As others see us’------------------------------------------------------------------ 192 4.2.13 Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 193 4.3 Symbols--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 194 4.3.1 Allegorical human figures---------------------------------------------------------------194 4.3.1.1 John Bull---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 194 4.3.1.2 Britannia----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 198 4.3.2 Historical figures------------------------------------------------------------------------- 200 4.3.2.1 The Queen--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 201 4.3.2.2 Margaret Thatcher------------------------------------------------------------------ 204 4.3.3 Allegorical animal figures---------------------------------------------------------------207 4.3.3.1 The lion------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 207 4.3.3.2 The bulldog------------------------------------------------------------------------- 211 4.3.4 Monuments and natural features-------------------------------------------------------212 4.3.4.1 ‘Big Ben’---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 213 4.3.5 Emblems---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 214 4.3.5.1 4.3.6 The Union Jack--------------------------------------------------------------------- 214 Symbolic phrases------------------------------------------------------------------------- 216 4.3.6.1 ‘God save the Queen!’/ ‘God save our gracious Queen’----------------------216 4.3.6.2 ‘Made in England’-----------------------------------------------------------------217 4.3.7 Sporting symbolism: football-----------------------------------------------------------218 4.3.8 Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 220 4.4 Principal themes---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 221 4.4.1 Great Britain: the occupying and protecting power----------------------------------221 4.4.2 Joining the European club---------------------------------------------------------------222 4.4.3 The Royal Family------------------------------------------------------------------------ 224 4.4.4 Britain in conflict------------------------------------------------------------------------- 227 4.4.4.1 Northern Ireland-------------------------------------------------------------------- 228 4.4.4.2 The Falklands War-------------------------------------...
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