ch02 - Chapter 2 : The Project Management and Information...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 : The Project Management and Information Technology Context Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition Learning Objectives Describe the systems view of project management and how it applies to information technology projects. Understand organizations, including the four frames, organizational structures, and organizational culture. Explain why stakeholder management and top management commitment are critical for a projects success. Learning Objectives Understand the concept of a project phase and the project life cycle and distinguish between project development and product development. Discuss the unique attributes and diverse nature of information technology projects. Projects Cannot Be Run in Isolation Projects must operate in a broad organizational environment. Project managers need to use systems thinking: Taking a holistic view of a project and understanding how it relates to the larger organization. Senior managers must make sure projects continue to support current business needs. A Systems View of Project Management The term systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a holistic and analytical approach to solving complex problems. Three parts include: Systems philosophy : View things as systems, which are interacting components that work within an environment to fulfill some purpose. Systems analysis : Problem-solving approach. Systems management : Address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems. Media Snapshot The Press Association Ltd., the largest news agency in the United Kingdom, hired a consulting firm to help turn things around after management noticed that its profit margins were sliding. The consultants suggested using a holistic view and a top- down strategy to make sure projects supported key business goals. They also suggested releasing short-term results to accrue benefits on an incremental basis and reviewing projects on a regular basis to ensure strategic alignment.* *Jackson, Lynne, Forge Ahead, PM Network (April 2004), p.48. Figure 2-1. Three Sphere Model for Systems Management Understanding Organizations Structural frame: Focuses on roles and responsibilities, coordination, and control. Organization charts help define this frame. Human resources frame: Focuses on providing harmony between needs of the organization and needs of people. Political frame: Assumes organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. Conflict and power are key issues. Symbolic frame: Focuses on symbols and meanings related to events. Culture is important. What Went Wrong?...
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ch02 - Chapter 2 : The Project Management and Information...

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