Unformatted text preview: Extended Learning Module A
Computer Hardware and
Software A-1 A Quick Tour of Technology
Categories of Computers by Size
Software: Your Intellectual Interface
Hardware: Your Physical Interface
The Complete Computer At Work A-2 Introduction Information technology (IT) –
computer-based tool that people use
to work with information and support
the information and informationthe
processing needs of an organization. Hardware – the physical devices that
make up a computer.
make Software – the set of instructions that
your hardware executes to carry out a
specific task for you.
specific A-3 A Quick Tour of Technology 1.
4. 5. 6.
6. A-4 Six categories of
Central processing unit
Connecting A Quick Tour of Technology Software types include: Application software - solves specific
problems or perform specific tasks.
problems System software - handles tasks specific to
• • A-5 Operating system software - controls application
software and manages hardware devices.
Utility software - provides additional functionality
to the operating system.
to Categories of Computers By Size
Personal Digital Assistants, Notebook
Computers, and Desktop Computers
Computers, Personal digital assistant
(PDA) - small hand-held
computer that surfs the Web
and performs simple tasks.
and Notebook computer - a fully
functional computer that runs
on battery power. Desktop computer - the most
popular A-6 Categories of Computers By Size
Minicomputers, Mainframe Computers, and
Supercomputers Minicomputer – used in a small to
environment. Mainframe computer – used in a
large business environment.
large Supercomputers - the fastest,
most powerful, and most expensive
type of computer. A-7 Software: Your Intellectual Interface
Application Software Application software is used to meet
specific information-processing needs,
including such things as:
including Payroll Customer relationship management Project management Training Word processing and many others. A-8 Software: Your Intellectual Interface
Application Software Personal productivity
software - performs
personal tasks, including
such things as creating:
such Team Work Memos Graphs Slide A-9 presentations Buying Personal
Software Suites Software: Your Intellectual Interface
Application Software Vertical market software - unique to a
particular industry. Examples include:
Patient-scheduling software Nursing allocation software Horizontal market software - general enough
to be suitable for use in a variety of industries.
Inventory management software Payroll software A-10 Software: Your Intellectual Interface
System Software Operating system software - controls
application software and manages how
hardware devices work together.
Microsoft Windows 2000 Pro Microsoft Windows 2000 ME Microsoft Windows XP Home Microsoft Windows XP Pro Mac OS Linux A-11 Software: Your Intellectual Interface
System Software Utility software - adds
to the operating system.
software Crash-proof software Uninstaller software Disk optimization
software Team Work Anti-virus
Anti-virus A-12 Evaluating Utility
Software Suites Hardware: Your Physical Interface Binary digit (bit) - the smallest unit of
information. ASCII (American Standard Code for
Information Interchange) - the coding system
that most personal computers use to represent,
process, and store information. Byte - a group of eight bits represents one
natural language character.
natural A-13 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Common Input Devices Input device - a tool you use to capture information and
commands. Examples include:
commands. A-14 Keyboard
Bar code reader
Optical mark recognition (OMR)
Scanner Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Common Output Devices Output device - a
tool you use to see,
hear, or otherwise
accept the results of
processing requests. A-15 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Common Output Devices CRTs – look like
television Flat-panel displays –
monitors that take up
much less space than
CRTs. A-16 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Common Output Devices Resolution of a screen – number of pixels it
has. Dot pitch – the distance between the centers of
a pair of like-colored pixels.
pair Resolution of a printer - the number of dots per
inch (dpi) it produces, which is the same
principle as the resolution in monitors. A-17 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Common Output Devices A-18 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Common Output Devices Inkjet printers – make images by
forcing ink droplets through
nozzles. Laser printers – form images
using an electrostatic process. Multifunction printers – scan,
copy, and fax, as well as print.
copy, A-19 On Your Own Finding a Printer to
Meet Your Needs Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Characteristics of CPUs and RAM CPU Speed
Speed measured in megahertz (MHz) and
gigahertz Contains control unit and arithmetic/logic unit
(A/L RAM Capacity
Capacity measured in megabytes (millions of
characters) A-20 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Characteristics of CPUs and RAM A-21 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Common Storage Devices Common storage devices include:
Floppy disk High-capacity floppy disk Hard disk CD-ROM CD-R (compact disc – recordable) CD-RW (compact disc – rewritable) DVD-ROM DVD-R DVD-RW, or DVD-RAM, or DVD+RW (all different
names by different manufacturers)
names A-22 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Telecommunications Devices Network - two or more computers connected so
that they can communicate with each other and
possibly share information, software, peripheral
devices, and/or processing power. Telephone modem - a device that connects
your computer to your phone line so that you
can access another computer or network.
can A-23 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Telecommunications Devices Types of modems include: Telephone modem Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem Cable modem Satellite modem A-24 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Telecommunications Devices Communication software includes: Connectivity software – enables you to use
your computer to “dial up” or connect to
another Web browser software – enables you to surf
the E-mail software – enables you to
electronically communicate with other people
by sending and receiving e-mail.
by A-25 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Connecting Devices Connecting devices enable your hardware to
communicate with each other. Busses – system and expansion. Expansion – slots and cards. Ports and connectors – USB, serial, parallel,
and A-26 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Connecting Devices A-27 Hardware: Your Physical
Keyboard and mouse ports
USB port Serial port Parallel port A-28 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Connecting Devices A-29 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Connecting Devices Popular connectors include: USB (universal serial bus) –the most
popular means of connecting devices to a
computer. Serial connector – usually has 9 holes but
may have 25, which fit into the corresponding
number of pins in the port. Parallel connector – has 25 pins, which fit
into the corresponding holes in the port.
A-30 Hardware: Your Physical Interface
Connecting Devices IrDA (infrared data association) ports –
are for wireless devices that work in
essentially the same way as the remote
control on your TV does. A-31 ...
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- Winter '11
- Personal computer, Output devices, physical interface