Modulea_Hardware_software

Modulea_Hardware_software - Extended Learning Module A...

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Unformatted text preview: Extended Learning Module A Computer Hardware and Computer Software Software A-1 A Quick Tour of Technology Categories of Computers by Size Software: Your Intellectual Interface Hardware: Your Physical Interface The Complete Computer At Work A-2 Introduction Information technology (IT) – computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and informationthe processing needs of an organization. Hardware – the physical devices that make up a computer. make Software – the set of instructions that your hardware executes to carry out a specific task for you. specific A-3 A Quick Tour of Technology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6. A-4 Six categories of Six hardware hardware Input device Output device Storage device Central processing unit Central (CPU) (CPU) Telecommunications Telecommunications device Connecting device Connecting A Quick Tour of Technology Software types include: Application software - solves specific problems or perform specific tasks. problems System software - handles tasks specific to technology management. technology • • A-5 Operating system software - controls application software and manages hardware devices. Utility software - provides additional functionality to the operating system. to Categories of Computers By Size Personal Digital Assistants, Notebook Personal Computers, and Desktop Computers Computers, Personal digital assistant (PDA) - small hand-held small computer that surfs the Web and performs simple tasks. and Notebook computer - a fully functional computer that runs on battery power. Desktop computer - the most popular choice. popular A-6 Categories of Computers By Size Minicomputers, Mainframe Computers, and Minicomputers, Supercomputers Supercomputers Minicomputer – used in a small to medium-size business environment. environment. Mainframe computer – used in a large business environment. large Supercomputers - the fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer. A-7 Software: Your Intellectual Interface Application Software Application software is used to meet Application specific information-processing needs, including such things as: including Payroll Customer relationship management Project management Training Word processing and many others. A-8 Software: Your Intellectual Interface Application Software Personal productivity Personal software - performs software personal tasks, including such things as creating: such Team Work Memos Graphs Slide A-9 presentations Buying Personal Productivity Software Suites Software: Your Intellectual Interface Application Software Vertical market software - unique to a particular industry. Examples include: particular Patient-scheduling software Nursing allocation software Horizontal market software - general enough to be suitable for use in a variety of industries. Examples include: Examples Inventory management software Payroll software A-10 Software: Your Intellectual Interface System Software Operating system software - controls application software and manages how hardware devices work together. Microsoft Windows 2000 Pro Microsoft Windows 2000 ME Microsoft Windows XP Home Microsoft Windows XP Pro Mac OS Linux A-11 Software: Your Intellectual Interface System Software Utility software - adds additional functionality to the operating system. to software Crash-proof software Uninstaller software Disk optimization Disk software software Team Work Anti-virus Anti-virus A-12 Evaluating Utility Software Suites Hardware: Your Physical Interface Binary digit (bit) - the smallest unit of the information. ASCII (American Standard Code for American Information Interchange) - the coding system Information the that most personal computers use to represent, process, and store information. Byte - a group of eight bits represents one Byte natural language character. natural A-13 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Input Devices Input device - a tool you use to capture information and commands. Examples include: commands. A-14 Keyboard Point-of-sale (POS) Microphone Mouse Trackball Pointing stick Touch pad Touch screen Bar code reader Optical mark recognition (OMR) Scanner Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Output Devices Output device - a Output tool you use to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of your informationyour processing requests. A-15 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Output Devices CRTs – look like CRTs television sets. television Flat-panel displays – Flat-panel thin, lightweight monitors that take up much less space than CRTs. CRTs. A-16 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Output Devices Resolution of a screen – number of pixels it Resolution has. has. Dot pitch – the distance between the centers of a pair of like-colored pixels. pair Resolution of a printer - the number of dots per inch (dpi) it produces, which is the same principle as the resolution in monitors. A-17 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Output Devices A-18 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Output Devices Inkjet printers – make images by forcing ink droplets through nozzles. Laser printers – form images using an electrostatic process. Multifunction printers – scan, copy, and fax, as well as print. copy, A-19 On Your Own Finding a Printer to Meet Your Needs Hardware: Your Physical Interface Characteristics of CPUs and RAM CPU Speed Speed measured in megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz (GHz). gigahertz Contains control unit and arithmetic/logic unit (A/L unit) (A/L RAM Capacity Capacity measured in megabytes (millions of characters) characters) A-20 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Characteristics of CPUs and RAM A-21 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Storage Devices Common storage devices include: Floppy disk High-capacity floppy disk Hard disk CD-ROM CD-R (compact disc – recordable) CD-RW (compact disc – rewritable) DVD-ROM DVD-R DVD-RW, or DVD-RAM, or DVD+RW (all different DVD-RW, or or DVD+RW names by different manufacturers) names A-22 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Telecommunications Devices Network - two or more computers connected so that they can communicate with each other and possibly share information, software, peripheral devices, and/or processing power. Telephone modem - a device that connects your computer to your phone line so that you can access another computer or network. can A-23 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Telecommunications Devices Types of modems include: Telephone modem Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem Cable modem Satellite modem A-24 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Telecommunications Devices Communication software includes: Connectivity software – enables you to use your computer to “dial up” or connect to another computer. another Web browser software – enables you to surf the Web. the E-mail software – enables you to electronically communicate with other people by sending and receiving e-mail. by A-25 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Connecting Devices Connecting devices enable your hardware to Connecting communicate with each other. Busses – system and expansion. Expansion – slots and cards. Ports and connectors – USB, serial, parallel, Ports and IrDA and A-26 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Connecting Devices A-27 Hardware: Your Physical Hardware: Interface Interface Keyboard and mouse ports USB port Serial port Parallel port A-28 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Connecting Devices A-29 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Connecting Devices Popular connectors include: USB (universal serial bus) –the most –the popular means of connecting devices to a computer. Serial connector – usually has 9 holes but may have 25, which fit into the corresponding number of pins in the port. Parallel connector – has 25 pins, which fit into the corresponding holes in the port. into A-30 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Connecting Devices IrDA (infrared data association) ports – ports are for wireless devices that work in are essentially the same way as the remote control on your TV does. A-31 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course I SYS 201 taught by Professor Meservy during the Winter '11 term at BYU.

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