World War I; Nationalism in general was a major force for conflict in the 19 th century. The A-H empire as well as the Ottoman Empire were constantly pressured by national minorities within its borders, demanding independence. Major powers often sided with these national minorities – for the identity theorists, these were alliances based on a shared identity, not simply a calculation of power, as the realists would argue. Thus, for example, the British supported Greek independence from the Ottoman Turks in the 1820s – this, acc to identity theorists, was motivated by the neo-classical revival in Europe and a desire to liberate the cradle of European civilization from the Turks. Similarly, Russia supported Slavic independence movements in Eastern and Southeastern Europe based on shared identity and a shared Orthodox Christian faith. 3 major forms of nationalism and ideology in the 19 th century: 1. Liberalism 2. Socialism 3. Militant nationalism Liberal nationalism promoted the spread of democracy, free trade, and international
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course POLISCI 1003 taught by Professor Olson during the Fall '11 term at GWU.