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notes2lifespan - 15:45 Five(external)senses...

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Physical development in infants and toddlers 15:45 Perceptual development: - Five (external) senses seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, smelling - Intermodal perception integration (separate-together) differentiation (together-separate), all the sensory information is together at first, they  don’t differentiation the differences early on, but they soon are able to separate the  differences synesthesia- when all the senses are combined. you cant differentiate the senses well - Proprioception (internal sense)- our awareness of where we are in space, our body  position.  Motor Development: - reflexes or actions  o How should one characterize the baby’s initial movements? 1. Reflexes: respond to stimulation 2. Actions: spontaneously produced Reflex: Semi automatic A sensory elicitor (often a touch) triggers a motor response Variability
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Within and between babies  (reflexes are different between babies and adults) Examples:  stepping ( newborns can take steps as you drag them along a surface) rooting ( stimulating the cheek, and the response is turning towards it and trying to suck  – feeding) babinski- (tickle someone one their feet and they spread their toes out) grasping- (touch the palm and they will clamp down on your finger) Moro- ( sit them down and push them back suddenly- the throw their arms and legs out) Actions: Spontaneously produced, purposeful, controlled, future- oriented Examples of early actions Fetus: Brings hand to mouth Opens the mouth before the arrival of the hand Newborn Aims arm movements toward a target
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15:45 The nature of early movements - Reactive movements a response to stimulating, reflex -Motor discharge Spontaneous, but not goal directed - Purposive movements spontaneous, goal-directed Two principles - Cephalocaudal head to tail there is a pattern of development examples massive head and small body head (esp. eyes and mouth) controlled before body - Proximo-distal (near to far) center to periphery ( growth goes from the middle out) example reaching: transport phase ( getting our arm to the location to the target), and grasping  (getting your arm to grasp hold of the target) Hand orientation at grasp  How controlled?
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15:45 1. Reactive knowledge is limited don’t know what to do, need grasping experience 2. Purposive motor control is limited know what to do, but cannot control hand Examples of gross motor skills - Stomach time   little time spend on stomach needed to build upper body strength vision used for motivation - Crawling facilitates development in other domains cognitive, spatial, social, emotional Examples of fine motor skills - learning to use a spoon: natural observations four stage process 1. Repetition ( individual components) in dish- out of dish,  in mouth- out of mouth
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