Chapt+5+for+Sakai

Chapt+5+for+Sakai - Chapter 5 Nature Nurture Human...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 Nature, Nurture, Human Development Genes and Heredity Heredity : Defines your nature. Based on biological transmission of traits from one generation to next, from your parents to you, and from you to your kids. Genetics : Is the branch of biology that studies heredity. Genetics is your ht, hair texture, eye color, plays a role in your intelligence, etc Chromosomes- Rod shaped structures composed of genes that are found within the nucleus of the cells. Genes - Each chromos contains thousands of pieces called what? Humans have 46 chromosomes – 23 pairs – in every body cell except for the sex cells. Sperm and ova each contain 23 unpaired chromosomes that unite at conception . Figure 5.1 Genes are sections of chromosomes in the nuclei of cells Genetic Principles • Genes – If an individual receives one gene for wavy hair and another for straight hair, that individual’s hair will be wavy . The gene for wavy hair is a dominant gene. It is referred to as dominant. A single copy of the gene is sufficient to produce its effect. – The same with eye color. You must receive a gene for blue eyes from both parents in order to develop blue eyes. The gene for blue eye color is a recessive gene. Segments within DNA consist of genes that make proteins to determine our development. TWINS TWINS : Twins are a form of multiple birth in which the mother gives birth to two offspring from the same pregnancy , either of the same or opposite sex . How are the twins forms? A zygote (zi-goat) (the single cell) divides into 2 cells so that each develops into an individual with the same genetic makeup. We begin life as a single cell called zygote, that divides again & again. • Monozygotic , (mono-zie-got-ic) or identical , twins develop from a single fertilized egg and have identical genes. Derived from a single zygote that has split in two = identical. • Dyzygotic , (Die-zee-got-ic) or fraternal , twins develop from two eggs and share only half of their genes. The two eggs form two zygotes . Genetic Principles • Sex-linked genes – The sex chromosomes determine whether an individual will become a male or female. – There are two types of sex chromosomes, called X and Y. – Females receive an X from each parent; males receive an X from mother and a Y from father. Figure 5.12a Figure 5.12a Fetal alcohol syndrome • If mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy , the baby is likely to be born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). • The more alcohol a woman drinks during pregnancy, the more likely her baby is to have anomalies of the head, face, and organs . • FAS is characterized by stunted growth of the head and body, facial, cranial and ear malformations, neurological damage, learning disabilities, and mental retardation....
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Chapt+5+for+Sakai - Chapter 5 Nature Nurture Human...

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