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RU+-+Chapt+8+for+students - Chapter 8 Cognition and...

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Chapter 8 Cognition and Language
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Cognition  refers to  ____________ , gaining knowledge, and dealing with  knowledge. Language  is intimately  ________  to the activities of cognition. It is a system of  arbitrary symbols that can be combined to create an infinite number of  meaningful statements. Cognitive psychologists  ________  how people think and acquire knowledge,  know what they know, how they imagine and how they solve problems. Attention  is the tendency to  ___________  selectively to stimuli It is generally true that a feature or object that is unusual or different will  get your attention quickly. Finding an  __________  feature or figure relies on a  preattentive  process , a procedure for  __________  information automatically or  simultaneously across a large portion of the visual field. Finding a typical feature or figure requires an  attentive process , a  procedure that  _____________  only one part of the visual field at a  time. Shifting   attention Many routine tasks that we perform require  _________  attention. When we intentionally  _________  our attention to a particular  stimulus, it is difficult to attend to other things, which is important in  flying a plane, playing video games, or operating machinery.
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Figure 8.4 Figure 8.4 Each gauge represents a measurement of a different variable in a machine. For the top row, the operator must ______ gauges one at a time. In the bottom row all the safe ranges are now in the safe ranges. See the ______ colors, all on the right side of the dials, where it should be. The operator detects an unsafe _________ preattentively.
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Video: Change Blindness Change blindness Recall the concept of the sensory memory People ________ they remember everything in a scene they have recently scanned. But they frequently _______ to detect changes in parts of a scene upon viewing it again. This common failure is referred to as __________ blindness
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADD is characterized by easy  ___________ , impulsiveness, moodiness and  inability to follow through on plans. When the symptoms include  ____________   fidgetiness, the condition is referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  (ADHD).  These disorders are estimated to occur in 3 to 10% of all children and about  ______ %  of those afflicted are boys. There are ongoing disputes about the true nature of  the disorder.   Categorization The  __________  of categories or concepts is one of the primary ways that we  organize information about our world. In general we  ____________  people, objects or events together when they have  important qualities in common.  There are a number of ways to categorize.
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