Introduction+to+Folkllife - Introduction to Folklife The...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Folklife The Scandinavian Model Folklife Studies Folklife Studies ► “Folklife” is an English adaptation of the Swedish term folkliv. ► The study of folk culture refers to literate European or American society. ► Folk culture is bound by tradition and transmitted by tradition. ► It is basically rural and pre­industrial. ► It is not the mass­produced, mechanized, popular culture of the 21st century. Folklife Studies Folklife Studies ► The study of folklife in the United States began in the 1960s. ► In Germany both Volksleben (folklife) and Volkskunde (folk art) date from early 1800s. ► The Swedish term folkliv (folklife) was in use by the mid­1800s. ► American scholars looked to Scandinavia for a model of folklife studies. The Little Community The Little Community 1. 2. 3. 4. Distinctive Small Homogeneous Self­Sufficient Distinctive Distinctive ► Where the community begins and ends is apparent. ► Distinctiveness is apparent to the outside observer. ► The people of the community have intense group consciousness. Small Small ► ► ► So small that there is a good chance that you know everyone in the village. The upper limit for this kind of study would be a village of 4,000 people. Even here, you would only make direct personal acquaintance with one section of it. Homogeneous Homogeneous ► Activities and states of mind are much alike for all persons of similar age and sex. ► The career of one generation repeats that of the preceding. ► Homogeneous is the equivalent of “slow changing.” Self­Sufficient Self­Sufficient ► The community provides for most of the needs of the people in it. ► The little community is a cradle­to­grave arrangement. Example from Anthropology Example from Anthropology The Nuer ► ► ► ► ► ► Cattle­raising tribe located in Sudan. Typical day involves watching the cattle. Driving them to water. Milking them; cleaning them of ticks. They use cattle urine to wash in. They drink cattle milk and blood. The Nuer The Nuer ► ► ► ► ► ► They burn cattle dung for fires. Every man knows the qualities of each cow. Children’s games and songs deal with cattle. Poetry centers on cattle. Names of boys and girls drawn from cattle. Cattle are key as a price for brides. Skansen Open­Air Museum Skansen Open­Air Museum Founder Dr. Artur Hazelius ► Located on a hilltop on one of Stockholm’s wooded islands. ► Rebuilt farmhouses, manor houses, barns, and outbuildings. ► Representative of all peasant regions of Sweden. The Bakehouse The Bakehouse ► Used for baking thin, unleavened bread. ► This bread was a staple in northern Sweden. Large Northern Farmstead Large Northern Farmstead ► Typical of large farms in northern Sweden. ► Special building used for large gatherings on special occasions. ► Local priest would come here to make sure people learned their catechism. Large Northern Farmstead Large Northern Farmstead ► The entrance hall has painted paneling with zigzag lines above it. ► The walls are decorated with large biblical paintings or symbolic landscapes with simple frames. Temperance Hall 1895 Temperance Hall 1895 ► An influential popular movement in Sweden. ► They demanded total abstinence from intoxicating liquors. ► Ground floor had a large meeting room and a kitchen. ► Member would meet and drink coffee. Temperance Hall 1895 Temperance Hall 1895 ► During the 1920s a stage was added to allow theatrical presentations. ► By 1910 there were 160,000members. ► Lodges were built all over the country. The Chapel 1898 The Chapel 1898 ► Traditional red­stained timber building. ► Furnished with a balcony and small kitchen. ► Hall is furnished with benches, a pulpit, an organ, and a stove for heating. Chapel Interior Chapel Interior ► Sunday services usually led by a lay preacher. ► There were hymns, Bible readings, a sermon and prayers. ► By law, all Swedes belonged to the official Protestant Swedish Church. Grindstone Making in Grindstone Making in Chipping Shed ► A stone disc turned on an axle for grinding or sharpening tools. ► Practiced there since 17th century. ► Farmers usually practiced a craft as their small farms did not provide an adequate living. Grindstone Grindstone ► Sandstone was quarried in the forest. ► Stones then carted to the village. ► Grindstones produced by hand in “chipping” sheds. ► Many of those who produced grindstones had lung disease. Swedish Red Paint Swedish Red Paint ► Originally used on the houses of the upper class in town. ► The owners wanted to color their houses like red brick buildings. ► During 1700s the fashion spread to houses of prosperous ironmasters. Swedish Red Paint Swedish Red Paint ► Made by boiling rye or wheat flour in water and adding chemicals including ferric oxide pigment. ► It is the pigment that lends the paint its dark red color and character. ► The pigment is a by­product of copper production dating from 1616. ► The paint impregnates the wood and affords protection against rot. The Judge’s Farmhouse The Judge’s Farmhouse ► Large farmhouse built in 1820s by the Crown’s district legal officer. ► Served as local court and enlistment office for the army. Judge Writes an Opinion Judge Writes an Opinion Judge Presides over Court Judge Presides over Court Painting of Farmer’s Cottage Painting of Farmer’s Cottage ► Work was done by indentured workers who owned no land of their own. ► Their payment was in the form of food such as grain, milk, dried peas, and salted herring. Farmer’s Cottage Kitchen ► Kitchen has both an iron range and a bread oven. ► The house also provided with a woodshed, privy, and a cellar for storage. Farm Worker’s Garden Farm Worker’s Garden ► Each family provided with a small potato patch for their own use ► Potatoes are very adaptable and will usually produce a respectable crop, even when the soil conditions are less than perfect. The Farmer’s Cottage The Farmer’s Cottage Interior ► Simple furnishings with unpainted chair, ordinary carpets, dining table without tablecloth. ► No closets for clothing and shoes. ► Agricultural proletariat numbered 100,000 by end of 19th century. Farm Labor System Farm Labor System ► A farm worker had to be a married man, and his wife had to work. ► He was hired for one year at a time, from November 1 to October 31. ► At the end of his contract, he could move if he wished. The Finn Settlement The Finn Settlement ► It consists of a wooden building for drying corn, a simple cabin which served as a dwelling, a cooking shed, a storehouse on posts, and a barn. The Finn Settlement The Finn Settlement ► Finnish immigration increased from the end of the 16th century. ► They suffered from the oppression of the nobility as well as from Russian raids and harvest failures. ► Sweden encouraged settlement. The Finn Settlement The Finn Settlement ► The smoke cabin is heated bya stove without a chimney. ► The smoke comes out into the room and rises to the ceiling, where it hangs like a cloud before being led out of the room through a duct in the ceiling. The Flax Mill The Flax Mill ► Textile fibers are obtained from the flax plant. ► This mill dates from the early 19th century. ► This mill is situated by a small stream. The Forester’s Hut The Forester’s Hut ► Similar huts were used in conjunction with felling timber in northern Sweden in the latter 19th century. ► It consists of a single room with one small window. The Forester’s Hut The Forester’s Hut ► In the middle of the room is the fireplace— a wooden box lined with sand and stones. ► The fire afforded some heat and some light and was also used for cooking. ► Diet consisted of pork, porridge, bread, and potatoes. Peasant Cottage Peasant Cottage Central Sweden ► There is a dwelling, cowshed, and barn in a single L­shaped building. ► The roof is thatched with straw. ► The dwelling is built of unpainted wood; the barn is built mainly of stone. Peasant Cottage Peasant Cottage Central Sweden ► ► ► ► The cottage shows how country people might live in 19th century. They were not landowners. The only thing they owned was the cottage that they lived in. Old age made them dependent on parish support. Peasant Cottage Peasant Cottage Central Sweden ► ► ► ► Unlanded people did not own any land. They made a living as casual laborers or craftsmen. Often employed for haymaking & harvesting. The last couple living here kept a cow and a couple of sheep in the windowless cowshed. The Ironmaster’s Farmstead The Ironmaster’s Farmstead ► The home of a wealthy mine­owning iron manufacturer of the 18th century. ► Mining was a summer occupation. ► Ore transported to the foundry druing the winter. The Ironmaster’s Farmstead The Ironmaster’s Farmstead ► With their special trade, the ironmasters formed a social class of their own. ► They differed from ordinary farmers both financially and socially. The Ironmaster’s Farmstead The Ironmaster’s Farmstead ► Iron masters used only a small portion of the iron they produced for their own purposes. ► Most was exported for the manufacture of tools, ploughs, cannonballs, and cannons throughout Europe. The Ironmaster’s Farmstead The Ironmaster’s Farmstead ► The superior furnishings bear witness to the social position of the ironmaster. ► The ceiling is decorated with flowers and birds. ► The table is covered with an embroidered red woolen cloth. The Ironmaster’s Farmstead The Ironmaster’s Farmstead ► The building is built of logs and roofed with birch bark and turf. ► It is painted in the traditional red color. ► Typical of the ironmaster’s house is the cast­iron chimney. Southern Farmhouse Southern Farmhouse Late 1700s ► It consists of low, ridged cottage joining two much higher storehouses, but only one is shown here. ► Walls made of trimmed logs and the roof is birch bark and turf. ► Garden with beehives and flowers in front. Southern Farmhouse Southern Farmhouse Late 1700s ► Interior wall painting depicts the Nativity Scene with the Virgin Mary on the left and Joseph on the right with the baby Jesus in a crib. The scene takes place in a stable with farm animals in the background. Southern Farmhouse Southern Farmhouse Late 1700s ► ► ► ► Dwelling house on a farm of 18th century in southern Sweden. The cottage is decorated for a festival Decorated with painted wall hangings. These hangings would have been taken down after the festival and stored. A Southern Farmstead of 1870s A Southern Farmstead of 1870s ► Making coffee at the fireplace. ► Farm moved to Skansen in 1896. ► First farm to be erected in its entirety. A Southern Farmstead of 1870s A Southern Farmstead of 1870s ► The living room with two built in beds. ► The farmer and his wife and children slept here. ► The farmer’s wife is knitting clothing for the family. ► Cupboard is between the two beds. A Southern Farmstead of 1870s A Southern Farmstead of 1870s ► Reading the Catechism, a summary of Christian doctrine. ► Used in religious teaching from the New Testament to present. ► A manual in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorized. A Southern Farmstead of 1870s A Southern Farmstead of 1870s ► Wall painting commemorating a family wedding. ► The bride is under a canopy wearing a flowing dress. ► The groom is wearing a black top hat and is carrying a bouquet. A Southern Farmstead of 1870s A Southern Farmstead of 1870s ► ► ► ► ► Pigsty occupied by a rare native breed known as Linderod. They adjusted to poor quality grazing. They can survive in a hard climate. They are resistant to disease. They are good at foraging. A Southern Farmstead of 1870s A Southern Farmstead of 1870s ► Feeding Asbo hens, a native breed. ► They do well where the land is rough and the soil poor. ► They are tough and persistent in searching for food. ► They are good at incubating eggs. A Southern Farmstead of 1870s A Southern Farmstead of 1870s ► Between the two beds in the living room was a cupboard. ► At the base of the cupboard was a space enclosed by a grill in which the rooster was kept in the winter. A Southern Church 1730 A Southern Church 1730 ► ► ► A rectangular log building with a tower topped off with a domed cap. Both the roof and walls are lined with oak shingles on the outside and these are painted with a mixture of tar and traditional red paint. Moved to Skansen in 1916. Southern Church Southern Church Interior ► Altarpiece from 1780 with rococo frame surrounds painting of women by the cross. ► The church has found a new lease on life as one of Sweden’s most popular churches for weddings. The Baron’s Manor The Baron’s Manor Late 18th Century ► The house of an estate owned by a baron, who enjoyed rights over land and tenants, including the right to hold court. ► A principal building with wings and pavilions grouped around a yard. The Baron’s Manor The Baron’s Manor Entrance Hall ► Entrance hall leads straight to magnificent dining room, its walls covered in paneling painted a pearl­grey. ► Note gold molding on the paneling. ► Family oval portraits are inlaid in the paneling. The Baron The Baron ► A title held by a nobleman of the lowest rank in feudal aristocracy. ► The king bestowed the rank on those to whom he granted land in return for military service. Baroness’s Bedroom Baroness’s Bedroom ► Both the bed and the chairs are painted brownish­red to imitate expensive mahogany. ► The coverings of the chairs and drapes are of printed calico. ► Gustavian chest of drawers of mahogany holds a night­clock. The Baron’s Manor The Baron’s Manor Kitchen Wing ► ► ► Kitchen was housed in a separate building because of the risk of fire. With the kitchen at a distance, the manor was not disturbed. The finished dishes were carried across the yard to the dining room in the main building. The Baron’s Manor The Baron’s Manor Pantry ► Pantry had unpainted wooden walls covered with shelves that held plates, dishes, and kitchen utensils. ► Spices were valuable and were kept locked away. The Baron’s Manor The Baron’s Manor The Library ► The library shelves have strips of dull green cloth to protect books against dust. ► The cloth also serves to give the rows of books a uniform appearance. The Baron’s Manor The Baron’s Manor The Kitchen Garden ► The garden has various older sorts of vegetables and herbs such as greens, carrots, and parsley. ► It is surrounded by traditional Swedish fruit trees and bushes. ► In the middle of the walk, there is a summerhouse. A Southern Farmstead A Southern Farmstead Example of Life in 1920s ► Built in the 1820s in southern Sweden. ► Altered many times: 1820s and 1900s. ► Continuously farmed until 1925, then abandoned. ► Moved to Skansen: 1973­1977. Southern Farmstead Southern Farmstead Cobblestone Courtyard ► Half­timbered construction, having a wooden framework with plaster, brick, stone or other masonry filling the spaces. ► Built when there was a shortage of timber, but plenty of clay and straw. Southern Farmstead Southern Farmstead The Parlor ► ► ► ► Parlor as it would have been in the 1920s. The “best” room in the house, receiving visitors and guests. Gramophone, or phonograph, common device for playing recorded sound, 1870s to 1920s. Oval framed photo of mother; square framed photo of her son. Southern Farmstead Southern Farmstead The Living Room ► The only room that was heated, so it was family sleeping place. ► By the wall, a bed. ► Above bed, a clock. ► Floor covered with rag rugs. ► Walls covered with flowered wallpaper, with a border at top. Southern Farmstead Southern Farmstead Mower ► In the 20th century, agricultural machinery introduced. ► One of the most revolutionary applications of modern technology. ► A transformation in the way people produce food worldwide. Southern Farmstead Southern Farmstead Swedish Spotted Hens ► Also known as “Flower Hen” because its spots look like flowers. ► It is the largest of Swedish breeds and is found in the south. ► Unaggressive, very calm, and robust. Southern Farmstead Southern Farmstead The Garden ► Behind the farmhouse, there is a garden with winding paths and boxwood hedges. ► Typical is the mixture of brightly colored flowerbeds, fruit trees, bushes, and a kitchen garden. The Soldier’s Cottage c. 1800 The Soldier’s Cottage c. 1800 ► A single­family cottage built of logs and roofed with turf, painted in the traditional red. ► On one end of the cottage is a plaque denoting that it has been allotted to him. The Soldier’s Cottage The Soldier’s Cottage ► System introduced by King Karl XI in 1682. ► Two farmers had to combine and jointly support one soldier. ► They had to provide him with living quarters, wages, and take care of the place when he was on duty. The Soldier’s Cottage The Soldier’s Cottage ► Among ordinary people the soldier was regarded highly. ► He travelled outside the parish and saw the known world. ► He brought back news which was spread by his neighbors. The Summer Pasture Farm 1659 The Summer Pasture Farm 1659 ► Little arable land in the villages, so grazing had to be found at a distance, as much as twenty miles away. ► Pasture farms grew up as outlying settlements for rearing of livestock. The Summer Pasture Farm The Summer Pasture Farm ► Girls looked after the cows, sheep, and goats during summer. ► Cows milked in the morning, grazed during the day, milked again in the evening. ► Milk turned into sour milk, butter, & cheese. Norwegian Storehouse Norwegian Storehouse Telemark, Norway ► Erected in 14th century but rebuilt in 18th. ► A building in which food is stored in the summer and securely locked. ► Food is removed, as needed, in the winter. Norwegian Storehouse Norwegian Storehouse Detail ► Entrance gallery had carved decoration added in 1783. ► Carving is traditional Norwegian style that is technically very difficult, centering on the acanthus leaf and vine design motifs. The Village Hall 1908 The Village Hall 1908 ► The Village Hall was built in 1908, repaired in 1950, donated to Skansen in 1964. ► Outgrowth of a popular labor movement opposed to the ruling classes. The Village Hall The Village Hall Interior ► Labor movements were considered a threat to society. ► They were not allowed to rent public buildings ► Thus, it became necessary for members to build their own places in which to meet. Elementary School Elementary School Exterior ► New law in 1842 required school attendance for all. ► Pictured is typical school in southern Sweden about 1910. ► Exterior has red and white paint. Surrounded by lawns, flowerbeds, and sandy paths. Elementary School Elementary School Classroom ► Teacher’s desk is on a raised dais. ► Children sit three to a desk. ► Classroom equipped with blackboard, maps, and illustrations of animals and plants. ► School day ran from 8:00 am to 1:00 pm. Elementary School Elementary School The Teacher ► To provide teachers for the new schools, training colleges were established. ► Teacher was often the only literate person in the parish. ► Residents turned to her for help with all sorts of documents. Flax Processing Flax Processing ► ► ► ► Cultivating flax and weaving linen were important activities. Flax was sown and harvested. Then subjected to retting, braking, scutching, & hackling. To reduce the labor, flax mills built during the 18th century. Flax Mill Flax Mill ► ► ► Flax Mill at Skansen is situated by a small stream. The stream drives a water wheel. That sets the tools in motion—flax is first crushed with a wooden hammer and then scutched using knives arranged like spokes of two large wheels. Flax Scutching Flax Scutching Flax Rope Making Flax Rope Making The Final Product The Final Product Open­Air Museum Concept Open­Air Museum Concept ► From Sweden, it spread to Denmark, Norway, Finland, the Continent of Europe. ► The largest is the Dutch Open Air Museum in the Netherlands, founded in 1912, opened 1918. Museum of Highland Culture Museum of Highland Culture ► Invernessshire, Scotland begun 1936. ► Gaelic Language, old Celtic tongue of Scots. ► Known for frugality ► Strong clan system Welsh Folk Museum Welsh Folk Museum ► At St. Fagan’s Castle in Cardiff, opened 1946. ► Collection of buildings: cottages, farmhouses, workshops, & mills. ► Gardens, costumes, and equipment. Museum of English Rural Life Museum of English Rural Life ► At University of Reading, opened 1950. ► Collection of objects, books, archives, photographs, film. ► Mission: protection of rural England through sustainable use of the land. Norwegian­American Museum Norwegian­American Museum ► Decorah, Iowa, founded in 1925. ► 16 building, with over 24,000 artifacts. ► Textiles, rosemaling, furniture, housewares. ► Pioneer log houses, school, blacksmith shop, Lutheran church. Colonial Williamsburg Colonial Williamsburg ► Williamsburg, Virginia, founded 1927. ► Interpretation colonial American city. ► Interpreters work, dress, and talk as they did in the era. ► Restored by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Farmer’s Museum Farmer’s Museum ► Cooperstown, New York, opened 1944. ► A working farm since 1813, owned by James Fenimore Cooper. ► Represents American rural life typified in central New York. ► More than 23,000 artifacts. Old Sturbridge Village Old Sturbridge Village ► Sturbridge, Mass., largest outdoor museum in northeast, opened 1946. ► Portrays life in New England 1790­1840. ► Homes, school, store, bank, sawmill, gristmill, blacksmith, cooper, & pottery. Shelburne Museum Shelburne Museum ► Shelburne, Vermont, founded 1947. ► Historic buildings include houses, barns, school, lighthouse, jail, general store, doctor’s office, covered bridge. ► Folk art, quilt, textiles, furniture, paintings. To Sum Things Up… To Sum Things Up… 1. 2. 3. 4. Distinctive Small Homogeneous Self­sufficient The End ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course 50 263 taught by Professor Gillespie during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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