Solomon IM Ch 08

Solomon IM Ch 08 -...

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Instructor’s Manual for Solomon, Berg, and Martin’s Biology, 9 th Edition 72 8 How Cells Make ATP: Energy Releasing Pathways Lecture Outline I. Aerobic respiration is a redox process. A. Glucose contains energy that can be converted to ATP. B. The process uses oxygen; it’s called aerobic respiration. C. Aerobic respiration is a redox process. 1. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + Energy 2. Water is both a reactant and a product. 3. Glucose is oxidized to form carbon dioxide. 4. Oxygen is reduced, forming water. 5. The electrons produced are used to form ATP. II. Aerobic respiration has four stages. A. Glycolysis 1. Glucose is converted to two 3 carbon molecules of pyruvate. 2. ATP and NADH are formed. 3. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. B. Formation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). 1. Pyruvate is converted into acetyl CoA. 2. NADH is produced. 3. Carbon dioxide is a waste product. 4. The process occurs in the mitochondrion. C. The citric acid cycle 1. Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, forming citrate. 2. Citrate undergoes conversions, ultimately reforming oxaloacetate. 3. Carbon dioxide is a waste product. 4. ATP, NADH, and FADH 2 are produced. D. The electron transport system and chemiosmosis. 1. Electrons that originated in glucose are transferred via NADH and FADH 2 to a chain of electron acceptors. 2. Hydrogen ions are pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane. 3. Via chemiosmosis, ATP is produced. E. Reaction types 1. Dehydrogenation a) Hydrogens are transferred to a coenzyme (NAD + or FAD). 2. Decarboxylations a) Carboxyl groups are removed from the substrate as carbon dioxide.
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Chapter 8: How Cells Make ATP: Energy Releasing Pathways 73 3. Preparation reactions a) Molecules are rearranged in preparation for decarboxylations or dehydrogenations. F. In glycolysis, glucose yields two pyruvates. 1. Glycolysis means “sugar splitting.” 2. One 6 carbon molecule is converted to two 3 carbon molecules. 3. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. 4. It occurs in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. 5. It involves a series of reactions, each catalyzed by a different enzyme. a) The first phase of glycolysis requires an initial investment of ATP. (1) First steps of glycolysis. (2) Glucose fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) (3) 2 ATP molecules are invested in this step. b) The second phase of glycolysis yields NADH and ATP. (1) G3P is converted into 2 pyruvate molecules. (2) 4 molecules of ATP are produced (net yield 2). (3) 2 molecules of NADH are produced. G. Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA. 1. A carboxyl group is removed from pyruvate (carbon dioxide is produced). 2. NADH is produced. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Solomon IM Ch 08 -...

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