Solomon IM Ch 18

Solomon IM Ch 18 -...

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Chapter 18: Introduction to Darwinian Evolution 189 18 Introduction to Darwinian Evolution Lecture Outline I. Evolution is defined as the accumulation of genetic changes within populations over time. A. A population is a group of individuals of one species living in the same geographic area at the same time. B. A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. II. Ideas about evolution originated before Darwin. A. Aristotle believed that organisms were moving toward a more perfect state. B. Fossils had been known for centuries. C. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck proposed a theory of evolution based on inheritance of acquired characteristics in the 1800s. III. Darwin’s voyage was the basis for his theory of evolution. A. After receiving a degree in theology, he embarked on the HMS Beagle on a 5 year exploration of South America and the South Pacific. 1. He was much influenced by the specimens and fossils found in South America, particularly the Galapagos Islands. B. Charles Lyell proposed that the earth was much older than commonly thought, in his book Principles of Geology, which Darwin read on his voyage. C. Principles of artificial selection also influenced Darwin’s theories. D. Malthus showed that populations can grow geometrically and food supplies increase arithmetically, therefore populations should outgrow the food supply. IV. Darwin proposed that evolution occurs by natural selection. A. Inherited variations that are favorable to reproduction and survival result in the change of a population = adaptation. 1. Darwin spent 20 years accumulating evidence by observation and experimentation. B. Alfred Russel Wallace came to the same conclusions while in the Malay Archipelago, and ultimately Darwin and Wallace presented this theory together at the London Linnaean Society in 1858. C. Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, was published in 1859. D. Darwin’s theory had four parts. 1. Members of a population vary, and some of these variations are heritable. 2. Organisms produce more offspring than can survive to reproductive age. 3. Resources available to a population are limited and therefore limit population growth.
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Instructor’s Manual for Solomon, Berg, and Martin’s Biology, 9 th Edition 190 4. Organisms with the most favorable traits have differential reproductive success, and those traits are passed to the next generation. V. The modern synthesis combines Darwin’s theory with genetics. A. Darwin and Mendel were contemporaries but unaware of each other’s work. B. The modern synthesis emphasizes the genetics of populations. 1. This theory combines genetics of populations with the tangible evidence of evolution. C.
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Solomon IM Ch 18 -...

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