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Informal Fallacies Exercises

Informal Fallacies Exercises - Jasmine [email protected]

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Jasmine McElroy @02652197 Informal Fallacies Exercises Exercise 1 1. Valid Syllogism - An argument that is made in such a way that two propositions, called premises, are true, which combine to form a conclusion that is guaranteed to be true; the major premise contains a term from the predicate of the conclusion and the minor premise contains the subject of the conclusion. If the premises are untrue, the argument still makes a logical conclusion, technically, but only in the formal fallacy form. (ex: Major Premise: All humans are mammals. Minor Premise: Albert is a human. Conclusion : Albert is a mammal. ) 2. Invalid Syllogism - An argument that is the opposite of a valid syllogism because it does not have the correct form to guarantee a true conclusion from the combination of the two premises (ex: Major Premise: All humans are mammals. Minor Premise: Cinnamon is a mammal. Conclusion: Cinnamon is a human. ) 3. Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) - An argument that uses people’s beliefs and biases to call them to action or to believe something; makes them feel like they are doing the right thing and/or creates a sense of unity through pictures/symbols that invoke certain feelings or emotions (ex: Advertisements in Germany to with the German Swastika that were designed to convince German people support the Nazi military; Swastikas were stirring symbols designed to invoke national pride ) 4. Appeal to Ignorance - An argument that attempts to convince people that something is true just because it has not been proven false or vice versa (ex: Becky must be pregnant because she is getting fat and hasn’t shown us a test that proves otherwise. ) 5. Appeal to Popularity-Bandwagon - An argument that uses the popularity of a product or opinion to support why it is the best product or opinion to have (ex: You should buy Juicy Couture perfume because everyone’s wearing it)
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6. Appeal to Pity - An argument that tries to invoke feelings of sympathy in order to get people to agree with it (ex: I couldn’t do my homework because I was so upset that my favorite TV show, that I have watched since I was a young child, was cancelled) 7. Red herring - An argument that attempts to throw people off of the main argument or discussion because it is off topic
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Informal Fallacies Exercises - Jasmine [email protected]

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