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MGT 291- Final Notecard

MGT 291- Final Notecard - Group Size=The optimal group size...

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Group Size= The optimal group size depends upon the objective for the group ; Larger team (>10 ) better at generating ideas; smaller groups (<10) better at taking action; Odd-numbered groups is preferred in order to avoid voting deadlocks. Group Composition – the diversity of group members such as homogeneous group and heterogeneous group. Heterogeneous groups better when task is complex and demands innovative solutions; Homogeneous groups better when task requires a high degree of cooperation and a quick response Norm - shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior. Functional norms -support organizational goals; dysfunctional group norms -undermine organizational success. Desirable norms -should be clearly stated right after a group is created. If dysfunctional norms are deeply ingrained, the best way is to disband the group. Social Loafing : The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Social loafing is more likely to occur as group size increases. Loss of personal accountability . Equity of effort- Sucker effect occurs when one or more individuals in the group decide to withhold their effort in the belief that others (social loafer) are planning to withhold effort. Motivational loss due to the sharing of rewards. Coordination loss as more people perform the task. Reduce- Form smaller group, Specialize tasks, Measure individual performance, Select intrinsically motivated employees, Use stepladder technique, steps of techniques=# of group members Role - A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Task roles refers to behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of group task; include initiator, information seeker/giver, opinion seeker/giver, elaborator, coordinator, orienter, evaluator, energizer, procedural technician, and recorder. Maintenance roles foster supportive and constructive group’s social climate; include encourager, harmonizer, compromiser, gatekeeper, standard setter, commentator, and follower. Task & maintenance roles must be performed by the group members to make the group effective. Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Development- Forming - Ice breaking phase; “How do I fit in?”, “Why are we here?”. Storming- Power structure is tested;“What is my role here?”, “Who is in charge and who does what?”. Norming - Formation of shared standards of behaviors; Group Cohesiveness is by-product of this stage; “What do the others expect me to do?,“Can we agree on roles and work as a team?”. Performing -Solving task problems;“How can I best perform my role?”,“Can we do the job properly?”. Adjourning -The work is done; Time to move on to other things;“What is next?”.“Can we help members transition out?” Group Cohesiveness -a sense of we-ness that helps the group stick together; attraction toward the group and other members; motivation to remain the membership, maintain a good relationship with other members, and commit to group goals. Ways to
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