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MGT 291= Ch. 14-Leadership

MGT 291= Ch. 14-Leadership - Traits and Behavior Theory of...

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Unformatted text preview: Traits and Behavior Theory of Leadership Leadership Traits Theory of Leadership ▪ What makes an effective leader? What ▪ Managerial implication? Managerial Behavior Theory of Leadership ▪ What makes an effective leader? What ▪ Managerial implication? Managerial ▪ Two types of Behavior Theory: Ohio state studies & University of Michigan Studies. Both Traits and Behavior Theories take deterministic approach. Ohio State Studies vs. University of Michigan Studies Michigan h O o i S a t e M d l n U v id r e s y t o M f c h a g l High structure & & High consideration High consideration Low structure High structure & not ar e d s noc i i Low structure & Low consideration low consideration b o J e c ­ t n d r m E o l p e y c ­ t n d r t i n I a g r S c u e ▪ Four leadership styles and two independent dimensions two ▪ Leaders high on both dimensions are most dimensions effective. effective. ▪ Two leadership styles and one dimension dimension ▪ An employee-centered leader is most effective. most Contingency Theory of Leadership: Fielder’s Contingency Model Fielder’s Leadership styles: task-oriented & relationshiporiented. oriented. Understanding leadership styles: ▪ Traits or behaviors? ▪ Stable or Changeable? ▪ One or Multiple? Effective leadership depends on the situation: Effective 1. Leader-member relationship: Trust ≠ Like. Leader-member Like. 2. Task structure Task 3. Position power (legitimate, reward, and Position coercive power) coercive Fielder Contingency Model Good Task-Oriented Leader’s Performance Performance Relationship -Oriented Poor • Situation • Leader-Member Relations • Task Structure • Position Power Moderate control Moderate (moderately favorable) (moderately High control (favorable) (favorable Low Control (unfavorable) (unfavorable I II III IV V VI VII VIII Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor High Strong High Weak Low Strong Low Weak High Strong High Weak Low Strong Low Weak Contingency Theory of Leadership: Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal Leadership Styles: Directive, Supportive, Participative, & Leadership Achievement-oriented. Achievement-oriented. Understanding leadership styles: Understanding ▪ Traits or behaviors? ▪ Stable or Changeable? ▪ One or Multiple? Effective leadership depends on the situation: Effective 1. Environmental Contingency Factors 1. 2. Subordinates Contingency Factors 2. Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal Path-Goal Situations and Effective Leadership Style Leadership Environmental Environmental Contingency Factors Contingency Subordinates Subordinates Contingency Factors Contingency Unstructured, complex Unstructured, task; ambiguous role expectation; strong formal authority. authority. Low ability; inexperienced; Low external locus of control. external Directive Directive Leadership Leadership Structured, routine, Structured, achievable task but tedious, stressful; weak formal authority; and less group support. group High ability; inexperienced; High lack of confidence. lack Supportive Supportive Leadership Leadership Complex, unstructured Complex, task. task. Want to be involved in Want decision-making; high ability; experienced; internal locus of control. internal Participative Participative Leadership Leadership Lack of job challenge; Lack strong formal authority. strong High ability; experienced. Leadership Style AchievementOriented Oriented Leadership Leadership Other Leadership Perspective: LeaderOther Member Exchange Theory Leaders select certain followers to be “in-group” and “outgroup” . In-group Exchanges is characterized by mutual trust, respect, In-group and liking whereas Out-group Exchange is not. “In-group” subordinates have higher performance ratings, less In-group” turnover, and greater job satisfaction. turnover, Transformational Transformational Leadership Leadership Transforms employees to pursue organizational goal over self-interests. Four Characteristics: Four ▪ Inspirational motivation Inspirational ▪ Idealized Influence Idealized ▪ Intellectual Stimulation Intellectual ▪ Individualized Consideration Individualized Transactional leadership Transactional Focuses on clarifying Focuses employees’ roles and providing rewards or punishment contingent on performance. Three Characteristics: Three ▪ Management by Exception (passive) (passive) ▪ Management by Exception (active) (active) ▪ Contingent Reward Contingent Further Distinction between Transformational and Transactional Leadership Leadership Transactional Leaders: ▪ lead for stability lead ▪ use extrinsic motivation. Ex) extrinsic rewards and punishment use ▪ primary power base is position power. Ex) legitimate, reward, and coercive power power Transformational Leaders: ▪ lead for change; develop followers to question not only established views but also those established by the leader also ▪ use intrinsic motivation. Ex) appealing to followers’ values and identity use ▪ Primary power base is personal power. Ex) referent and expert power Primary Transactional= management Transformational = leadership The Full-Range Theory of Leadership The Effective leaders need to have the optimal mix of transactional and transformational leader behaviors Conflict basics •Dysfunction vs. Functional Conflict •Dysfunctional= when conflict disrupts, hinders job performance •Functional= responsive and innovative aiding in creativity and viability •Types of Conflict •Personality conflict •Norm-based conflict •Cross-cultural conflict •Intergroup conflict= conflict between two departments within the same company Five Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict •Integrating •Obliging •Avoiding •Dominating •Compromising ...
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