ITS 201- Exam #2 Class notes

ITS 201- Exam #2 Class notes - ITS 201- Exam #2 Day 1 class...

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ITS 201- Exam #2 Day 1 class notes 2/16/2011 Political, Economics, Anthropology, historical, and cultural What is Anthropology? o The scientific study of what it means to be human Aspects/Subfield o Human shape their material environment- Archaeology o Humans differ in their physical form- Physical/Biological Anthropology o Humans have a unique communication system- Linguistic Anthropology. Ex) lie, o Humans act according to learned knowledge systems- Cultural Anthropology Archaeology- studies the ways humans manipulate their material environment. Examine material environment of past societies for clues about their lives Physical Anthropology- Examines the ways humans are biologically similar to and different from other animals o Primatology o Human evolution Linguistic Anthropology- How humans use language to communicate. The spread and transformation of language o Language acquisition o Language revitalization Cultural Anthropology- Describes and analyzes the beliefs people have about their social…… What does it mean to be human o All different kinds of human studies… o What makes anthropology unique? What defines it? The anthropologist perspective defines it Not defined by their topic makes it unique The Anthological Perspective o R elative o E mpirical o A daptation o C omparative o H olistic Relativistic o Methodological o Theoretical o Philosophical Franz Baas (1848-1952)= The practices and customs of another culture should be understood only in terms of its own context and its own standards Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)= All cultural practices functions to serve the needs of members of a society in their own
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context Relativisms o Methodological Relativism: All social action is data of the same type. All Anthropologists believe in this. o Theoretical Relativism: Assumption that all human social practices make sense in their own contexts o Philosophical Relativism: Every value system is equally valid and needs to be accepted on its own terms Empirical o Participant Observation Participant’s perspective or emic view: Helps focus on holism and relativism Runs risk of particularism (“letting the native’s do the analysis”) Observer Perspective or etic view: Helps see what else is happening that insiders might miss Runs the risk of overgeneralization and ethnocentrism masking as science (“murdering to dissect”) o Ecological (vs. laboratory) Adaptationist o Assumes change o Not teleological o Biological Metaphor Adaptation to context No living fossil societies, no “backward” and “advanced” cultures Cultural Comparison o Every culture contact moment is a comparative one o Comparison to one’s own culture is not simply convenient: it is central to two of anthropology’s purposes, Anthropological Comparison o There are 3 common features The anthropologist keeps in mind the holistic context The anthropologist isn’t fooled by surface similarities or
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ITS 201- Exam #2 Class notes - ITS 201- Exam #2 Day 1 class...

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