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Literature Review (Draft 2)

Literature Review (Draft 2) - Christopher O Roman Final...

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Christopher O. Roman Final Literature Review Due: 11/23/2010 Literature Review Smoking in the workplace is a common practice for most businesses in the gaming and hospitality industries. Although the focus of this study is on the gaming industry, specifically casinos, it is important to note the consequences linked to smoking in all workplaces are severe and should not be overlooked. When the typical smoker exhales after taking a whiff of his/her cigarette, he/she is releasing harmful toxins into the atmosphere. These toxins combine with the toxins already emitted by the smoldering cigarette to form secondhand smoke (SHS). A typical nonsmoker exposed to SHS for a short period of time may exhibit some preliminary signs of coughing, sneezing, or wheezing depending on how sensitive they are upon exposure. Therefore, imagine the detrimental health effects correlated with SHS exposure on the typical nonsmoking casino employee, who is exposed to abundant amounts of SHS daily. The following research examines this issue in more depth and also examines possible solutions to rectify the problem at hand. To begin, an introduction of the framing literature is necessary. In a 2006 Report of the Surgeon General titled, “The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke”, the negative health impacts linked with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are examined in detail. This report focuses on the health of the general public as opposed to a specific subgroup. Studies in the report are done on animals and humans alike to draw important conclusions which link SHS exposure to nasal and sinus disease, heart disease, and lung cancer. Important terms to consider are secondhand smoke (SHS), sidestream smoke, mainstream smoke, and carcinogens. Secondhand smoke is defined as the smoke inhaled by nonsmokers that contaminates indoor spaces and outdoor environments. SHS is ultimately a mixture of sidestream
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smoke and mainstream smoke. Sidestream smoke is released by the smoldering cigarette while mainstream smoke is drawn through the cigarette and released by the smoker when he/she exhales. Carcinogens are broken up into three main subgroups within the Surgeon General’s Report. The three subgroups are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-Nitrosamines, and aromatic amines. PAH’s are defined as a diverse group of compounds formed in the incomplete combustion of organic material, and are potent, locally acting carcinogens in lab animals which induce tumors of the upper respiratory tract and lung. N-nitrosamines are a large group of carcinogens that induce cancer in a wide variety of species and tissues and are presumed to cause cancer in humans. Finally, aromatic amines are a group of weaker carcinogens which have been known to cause tumors in a variety of sites in lab animals.
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