Female political representation--role of electoral quotas: Definition: Laws oftentimes restrict women’s movements and ability to earn a paycheck. Child care also becomes an issue. Electoral quotas are a type of election threshold. They are a clause that stipulates that a group must receive a minimum percentage of votes, either nationally or within a particular district, to obtain any seats in the parliament. Significance: The effect of the electoral quotas is to deny small parties the right of representation or force them into coalitions; or in this case, to actually gain a certain percentage of female political representation. Development and political representation is more consequential for women than men, and bringing women into the formal labor force is a critical step towards empowerment. Cite/Source: Esther Duflo and Raghabendra Chattopadhyay (2004), “Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India” In India there were political
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