Positive Economic Theory and Analysis It will be noticed that value judgments and normative elements are unavoidable in economic discussions. Yet economists and researchers take the effort of preserving and developing the scientific content of the subject matter. There is a standard theoretical model generally used and improved upon in most analytical work . This model emerges out of neo-classical techniques introduced at the beginning of this century. Professor Danie M. Hausman in his recent book Inexact and Separate Science of Economics has brought out several basic features of this theoretical model. The important feature is: (A) Marginal Approach: The standard theoretical model used in economics is also called a marginal method or approach. This is because all optimizing decisions are taken ’at the margin’ under this method. Margin or marginal change means infinitesimally small changes in an economic entity under consideration, such as utility, cost, factor services, wage rate , quantity
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